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lonlron Waterloo Place 

C^lforU i High Street 

Cambritifie Trinity Street 





lonDon, %for1], anil CambnVni 



/■ ^f 


Most masters will admit that boys experience difficulty in 
elementary Latin Composition principally from not understand- 
ing the structure of their own language. They commence 
Latin at an early age without any knowledge of English 
Grammar, for it is assumed that this will grow upon them 
during their study of Latin ; and they spend years in en- 
deavouring to apply certain rules which they learn by heai*t, 
without being led to perceive that the grammatical value of 
most words must be the same, whatever be the language 
employed. Now none of the exercise books at present in use 
seems to recognize this deficiency ; they are all adapted rather . 
for men who have commenced the study of Latin late in life than 
for the boys for whom they are actually intended. The result is 
that, whatever be the dubious gain in mental discipline, as far as 
the acquisition of knowledge is concerned a considerable period 
of a boy's early life is practically wasted. In many instances, 
success is attained at last, not so much through any assistance 
derived from the teacher, as because repeated examples have 
at length forced themselves upon the observation of the learner, 
and enabled him unconsciously to form a system for himself. 

Now it appears that a great deal of trouble and vexation might 
be saved even to a clever boy, if his observation were directed 
aright from the beginning. If he were made to parse his 
English sentences before turning them into Latin, he would soon 
perceive that certain fixed principles pervade both languages ; 


and he would be pleased to fiDd that, in his practical knowledge 
of his mother tongue, he already possesses an unsuspected fund 
of information, which will enable him to master any language 
to which he turns his attention. 

The object of this book, then, is to teach Latin Composition 
and English Grammar simultaneously, in full confidence that 
the acquisition of the former will be found much easier, when 
it is approached through routes which turn out on inspection 
to be already familiar. In accordance with this object, words 
and phrases have been dealt with only as they form parts of 
complete sentences ; and befoi*e these are turned into Latin, 
the grammatical significance of each word in the English is 
required to be carefully pointed out, and the sentence analyzed, 
as indicated in the body of the book. This system has under- 
gone the test of experience for several years, and has always 
been found to work successfully. 

When a boy has once acquired the art of analyzing correctly 
he may for the most part be spared the trouble in future, for 
the analysis is only, as it were, the crutch to teach him to 
walk, and will but impede the rapidity of his progress, when 
he has learned to do without it. But when it appears that a 
boy has misunderstood the construction in any particular 
passage, or if the clauses appear to have been too involved 
for his right apprehension of them, let him proceed to analyze 
the sentence for himself, and it will be found that the mistakes 
will then often be corrected without a master's assistance. 

It is suggested that a clause which is likely to present any 
difficulty should always be analyzed, for boys ought to receive 
timely warning of the pitfalls in their way. Some masters 
seem to think it their special function to convict their pupils 
of ignorance, and even begin by regarding their inevitable 
success with a sort of grim satisfaction ; but they soon find that 


if they only give a boy a fair chance he is sure to go wrong, 
and, strange as it may appear, he is the more likely to fail 
again in the same place. No one, who has not found it out for 
himself, would believe how difficult it is to prevent a boy from 
stumbling again, if he has once been suffered to fall at any point. 
He has been allowed to reason himself into a wrong opinion, 
and is in the position of the man convinced against his will ; 
unknown it may be even to himself, he remains of the same 
opinion still. Repeated correction of errors is not the best way 
of imparting accuracy; in this, as in most other instances, 
prevention is the best cure. 

This book is intended primarily for boys who have only 
mastered the accidence, and have begun to understand such 
distinctions as that which exists between the active and 
passive voices of a verb, and perhaps also such easy construc- 
tions as the agreement of a verb with its subject, and of an 
adjective with its substantive, but it will also be found useful 
for boys much more advanced ; and the application of the 
system to an English lesson, as suggested at the end of Part 
II., will be found a useful exercise for boys of almost any age. 

The teaching of Composition on this plan may be advan- 
tageously combined with lessons in construing at sight on the 
same principle. Thus, if a boy is in doubt how to commence 
any sentence, let him look for the principal verb, just as he is 
in the habit of doing in English, and then for its subject ; when 
he has construed these, he may be made to close his book, and 
say what construction he expects to follow, and it will be found 
that in most instances he will be able to predict exactly what 
he must look for. It is a good plan for the master to give the 
meaning of the words, when the boy has selected those which 
he intends to construe. This method is much preferable to con- 
fining the attention of the class to a few lines prepared over-night. 

viii PREFACE. 

It brings out a boy's intelligence, and prevents him from depending 
on his companions : moreover it is possible to get over a con- 
siderable amount of ground in this way, and thus, besides facility 
gained in translation, opportunity is afforded of becoming inte- 
rested in the author, and CaBsar is no longer regarded merely as 
a repository of "ablative absolutes," or Livy of "oratio obliqua." 

There is one more point to which it is desirable to call 
attention. It will generally be acknowledged that there is a 
great advantage in instituting comparisons between different 
languages which a class may be learning simultaneously ; but 
this too often degenerates into calling attention merely to 
similar words or roots. In the present work care has been 
taken rather to point out like phrases, and corresponding or 
diverse modes of expressing the same thing, than to indicate 
•mere words common to two or more languages. The words 
will be observed in most cases by the boys themselves with 
little assistance as they get older, while, from the want 
of interest they excite, they are soon forgotten by younger 
boys; but even a beginner is struck by such a difference of ex- 
pression as the English / have a fever ^ and the Greek the fever 
has me^ or by the different modes of expressing two consecutive 
actions in Greek, Latin, and English. The first mentioned 
branch of comparative philology is not of course without great 
value, but it is too frequently made entirely to exclude 
the latter. It is no bad exercise to tell a short anecdote, 
and make a boy tell you the same story as well as he can in 
English, using Latin or Greek idioms as the case may be. Of 
course his immediate aim will be to make it look as much like 
a translation as possible, and he will often succeed very fairly 
in imitating the style of the authcfr he is engaged in reading. 

One word with regard to the arrangement of the subject- 
matter. Attention is first directed to the verb, as containing 


the leading idea in each sentence, and all other parts of the 
sentence are introduced as attending on the verb. The simplest 
and most general form of sentence is taken to be a transitive 
verb with its subject and object. The different forms which 
the subject, verb, and object may assume ^e then pointed out, 
and in the examples appended there are abundant opportunities 
of inculcating the simpler case constructions. 

It has not been thought advisable to discuss co-ordinate 
clauses; they may always be treated as separate sentences 
linked on by conjunctions, and will present no difficulty. 

The verb "to be " has been treated as anomalous in its 
construction. This, it is thdught, will need no apology, when 
it is remembered that even now tribes of speaking men exist, 
who have not arrived at the power of abstraction necessary to 
produce this particular verb. The subdivision of a sentence 
into subject, copula, and predicate, however ingenious it may 
be, is of no practical assistance to any one in acquiring a new 
language, or in studying the elements of his own ; and it bears 
much the same relation, perhaps, to language, that the theory of 
numbers does to arithmetic. 

The chapter on Questions naturally occupies a place just after 
that on the Relative Clause ; this, of course, is owing to the 
similarity between relative and interrogative words, but it is- 
by no means clear that this is the place in which it would best 
be introduced to the notice of a beginner. The same remarks 
apply to the chapter on Correlatives. It is possible that, in the 
endeavour to conform to existing methods of explanation, the 
chapter on Indirect Commands is not arranged in so simple a 
manner as it might otherwise have been, but it is not appre- 
hended that any real* difficulty will be found with this part of 
the subject. Great care has been taken to make the explana- 
tions as short as is consistent with completeness. 


Examples have been added, to make the book more useful for 
school work, but these are not regarded as an essential part of 
it ; examples maybe taken from any exercise book already in use. 

In Part III. will be found a short explanation of the more 
ordinary case constructions^ with numerous examples. These 
constructions are in all cases compai*ed with the corresponding 
English usage; and, as in the other parts of the book, a boy is 
led to base his progress on the knowledge he already possesses. 
He will approach this part of the subject, it is believed, from 
an entirely new point of view, and will gain all the advantage 
which usually results from various methods of learning the 
same thing. Should the arrangement of this part of the volume 
not meet with the approbation of individual masters, it is hoped 
that the examples will yet be found of service, as they can in 
all cases be used in connexion with the syntax as laid down 
in most of the Latin Grammars in general use. 

The chapters on "Qui" with the Subjunctive, the Gerundive, 
and the Past Participle, have been added as corollaries, so to 
speak, on chapters in the earlier portion of the book. 

In conclusion, the aim of this work is to combine English 
parsing with Latin Composition, beginning from the simplest 
sentences, and gradually passing on to the more complex forms 
of expression. It is believed that in this way much more rapid 
progress can be made than is generally supposed ; more interest 
will be inspired into what will at best be but a dry study, it is 
feared, for beginners ; and this at least is certain, that we shall 
not have the dull boys growing up, as at present, entirely 
ignorant of English Grammar, through inability to apply the 


principles they have learnt only in connexion with a language 
they never understood. 

R. Prowt>e Smith. 





I. The Vebb and its Subject 1 

II. The Dibect Object ........ 2 

Examples 4 


(a.) Adjectives 6 

Examples 7 

(5.) Apposition 8 

Examples 9 

(c.) The Genitive Case 30 

Examples 11 


V. The Composite Subject 13 

Examples 14 

VI. The Vebb "to be" 15 

Examples 15 

VII. The Pbolate Infinitive 16 

Examples 18 

VIII. Veebs op Askinq and Teaching 19 

Examples 20 

IX. The Dative op the Remotes Object . . . . 21 

Examples 22 

X. The Veeb-Noun Infinitive 22 

ExAtoLES. 24 

XI. The Veeb-Noun Infinitive {continued) ^ • • .24 

XII. Examples 25 

Miscellaneous Examples 27 





I. The Relative Clause 32 

Examples . . . .* . . . . . 36 

ii. cobbelatiyes 37 

Examples 39 

III. Questions 40 

Examples . . .41 

IV. Indibect OB Oblique Sentences 42 

Indibect Enunciation 42 

Examples 45 

V. Indibect Questions 47 

Examples 48 

VI. Indibect Commands 50 

Examples 51 

VII. Speeches 53 

Examples of Speeches to be tbansfobmed into 

"Obatio Obliqua" 57 

VIII. The Ablative Absolute 61 

Examples 63 

IX. Advebbial Clauses 65 

X. English Poetby Analyzed 67 

XI. Latin Pbose Analyzed 71 

XII. Miscellaneous Examples 74 



I. The Ablative Case 90 

Examples 92 

II. Place and Names op Towns 99 

Examples 101 

III. Time 103 

Examples . 103 

CONTENTS, . xiii 


IV. AccrsATiYE AND Ablatite oe Bebfect . . . 106 

Examples 106 

V. Quality 107 

Examples 108 

YI. Dimensions of Time and Length .... 110 

Examples Ill 


tlXAMPLES ' 113 

VIII. "Opus" and "Usus" . . . . . . .113 

Examples 114 

ix. compabison 114 

Examples 115 

X. The Genitive with " Duty" ob " Token" undebstood 117 

Examples 117 

XI. The Genitive of the Thing Measubed . . . 118 

Examples 118 

XII. The Genitive Pbolative and Objective . . . 120 

Examples 120 

XIII. "DiGNus" AND Cognate Wobds . . . . . 123 
Examples 123 

XIV. The Dative Case 124 

Examples 124 

XV. Vebbs govebning a Dative 127 

Examples 128 

XVI. The" Dative of the Complement ISO 

Examples 180 

XVII. Pabticulab use of the Vebb "Sum" with the Dative 182 

Examples 183 

XVIII. The Gebundivb 133 

Examples .' 184 

XIX. "Qui" with the Subjunctive 136 

Examples 187 

XX. The Peefect Passive Pabticifle .... 189 

Examples 140 

English -Latin Vocabulaby 143 

F&OFEB Names 174 





Every sentence contains at least a verb and its subject. 
The verb (with one exception *) states what a thing does or 
suffers, e. g. 

(i.) The stars shine, 
(ii.) Romulus slew Remus, 
(iii.) Pompey was defeated by Caesar. 

In (i.) shine is the verb stating what the stars do. 

In (ii.) slew is the verb stating what Romulus did. 

In (iii.) was defeated is the verb stating what Pompey 

The persons, or things, which are said to do or suffer, are 
called the subject to the verb. 

The subject may always be found by putting "who?" or 
"what ?" before the verb, and answering the question so fonned. 

Thus, in (i.) shine is the verb. Q. What shine ? A. The 
stars. The stars, then, is the subject to the verb shine. 

In (ii.) slew is the verb. Q. Who slew ? A. Romulus. 
Bomulus then is the subject of the verb slew. 

* This exception is the verb to he, considered in a future chapter, Vide 
which states that a thing is some- Ft. I. ch. yi. 
thing. It will be more conveniently 

2 THE DIRECT OBJECT. \Pt. L ch, 2. 

In (iii.) was defeated is the verb. Q. Who was defeated ? 
A. Pompey, Pompey then is the subject of the verb was defeated. 

After having found the verb and its subject, it will be 
easy to arrange the remaining words according to their gram- 
naatical construction : this arranging is called analyzing the 



When we have found the verb and its subject, the next 
thing is to inquire if it acts on an object. 

Only verbs in the active voice can act on an object. 

To find the object, read the subject and verb, and then 
put " whorriy^ or " what,** after the verb ; the answer to the 
question so foi*med will be the direct object of the verb. 

If the question cannot be answered, there will be no ob- 

Thus, in the first example the question will be, the stars 
shine what ? here no answer is possible, and therefore there is 
no object. 

In the second example, the question is, Romulus slew whom ? 
Answer, Remus ; hence Remus is the direct object of the verb 

In the third example, was defeated is a passive verb, and 
therefore there is no object. 

In Latin, the subject is put in the nominative case, and 
the direct object in the accusative. 

The verb must be in the same number and person as its 

Thus the above examples become in Latin — 
(i.) Sidera lucent, 
(ii.) Romulus Remum interfecit. 
(iii.) Pompeius a Csesare victus est. 

It should be noticed that in Latin the order of the words 
is not the same as in English. 


The English order is — 

1. Subject. 2. Verb. 

3. Object. 

e.g. Romulus slew 


In Latin the order is — 

1. Subject. 2. Object. 

3. Verb. 

e. g. Romulus Remum 


This will be very apparent, if reference be made to Caesar, or 
ta any other Latin prose author : it will be found, on opening 
the book at random, that, in almost every instance, the word 
immediately preceding a full stop is a verb. 

The English of each sentence should be carefully analyzed, 
before it is turned into Latin. 

It will be found, convenient to write the analysis on the left 
hand page of the copy-book used for such purposes, and the 
corresponding Latin on the page opposite. 

Although the column of subjects occupies the left side of the 
page, the student must not be allowed to write down the * 
subject, before he has written the verb in the second column. 

The small column on the extreme left is reserved for those 
conjunctions which may be regarded as linking on fresh 
sentences ; all words, not falling under the heads already men- 
tioned, may be written in the column on the extreme right*. 

The above examples, when analyzed, will be written thus : 







The stars 






was defeated 

by CsBsar, a5Z. of agent. 

(i.) Sidera lucent, 
(ii.) Romulus Remum interfecit. 
(iii.) Pompeius a Csesare rictus est. 

l.i the subject of the verb be one of the personal pronouns, 
it is seldom expressed in Latin, unless it is desired to call par- 
ticular attention to it, or to distinguish it from some other word. 

* Such words and phrases are discussed more fully in l*t. I. ch.iv.^ and 
in Pt. III. 

B 2 

4 EXAMPLES ON THE VERB, \Pi. /. ch, 2. 

Thus, you have preserved the republic, would be translated 
into Latin : 

Rempublicam servavisti. 
But, if it were intended to insist on the fact that 70U, and you 
alone, have preserved the republic, it would be written : 

Tu rempublicam servavisti. 
When any part of the sentence is not expressed in the Latin, 
it will be well to write it in its proper place in the analysis, 
and then enclose it in brackets: e. g. 


I (You) I have preserved | the republic. 

Bempublicam servavisti. 

Examples on the Verb, its Subject and Object, 

The sun is shining. 
The girl sings a song. 
Boys run. 

The soldiers are coming. 
The Romans conquered the enemy. 
The general will lead the army. 
The city has been destroyed. 
The ship will carry the sailors. 
Gold is dug out-of the earth. 
Animals eat with teeth. 
The*ity was built by Romulus. 
Lightning has come from the clouds. 
We speak with the tongue. 
Rewards are given by the judge. 
The law forbids crimes. 
The bulls love the shade. 
The horse draws the chariot. 
The sun brings the day. 
Darkness covers the earth. 
Horses are restrained by reins. 
The ship is driven by the wind. 


We shall have spoken about the poet. 
Ye had seen the virgins. 
Men fear the gods. 
The poet was writmg verses. 
The father stood behind the table. 
They ran into the city. 
Soldiers are attacking the town-walls. 
The master teaches the boys. 
The charioteer has driven the horses. 
The Senate will pass the law. 
The people * have chosen the tribunes. 
The boy was brought-up by his mother. 
Fables are read by children. 
Sheep are torn by wolves. 
Bulls have horns. 

He was speaking about punishments. 
Agave tore-in-pieces ' her son. 
Silence becomes you best. 
Beware-of the dog. 

We have brought letters from the army. 
He will never see his country again. 
They have sought-for our hiding-place in vain. 
The rain will stop the games. 
You must come with me ; I fear the darkness. 
He has lost a friend, he has gained a kingdom. 
You must stay with me and dine. 

The sentinels were cut-down, the camp broken-through. 
Seek honour, not wealth. 

The army is hastening to the city, Caesar- is come • already. 
The King will depart to the army, the Queen will remain in 
the palace. 

We hear mourning on-all-sides, and see sad faces. 
Yet not without cause do we mourn. 

1 Singular. * I am come is perfect tense: so 

^ Dilaniare, also /t&otf eom« is pluperfect. 

6 ADJECTIVES. \Pt, /. ch, 3. 



St'BSTANTiVES are qualified or described in three ways, either 
by adjectives, other substantives in apposition, or by genitive 

We will discuss these in order. 


Let us consider the sentences — 

(i.) Many men are crushed by adverse circumstances, 
(ii.) Death does not terrify a brave man. 

In (i.) the substantive men is qualified by the adjective tTiany, 
and the substantive cirGwmstanceB is qualified by the adjective 

In (ii.) the substantive man is qualified by the adjective 

The adjective must be in the same gender, number, and case, 
as the word it qualifies or describes. Thus, in (i.) men is mas- 
culine, plural, nominative (being the subject of the verb are 
crushed)^ and hence many is masculine, plural, nominative, to 
agree with it. So, the adjective adverse is feminine, plural, 
ablative, to agree with its substantive circumstances (relms). 

In (ii.) the substantive man is masculine, singular, accusative 
(being the direct object of the verb terrify\ and so the adjec- 
tive brave must also be masculine, singular, accusative, to agree 
with it. 

When an adjective qualifies the substantive man, or things 

the substantive is often omitted, and the adjective put in the 
masculine gender, if man is understood, and in the neuter, if 
thing is understood. 

This is especially the case, if the substantive is plural. 

Thus, many men may be translated multi^ and many (kings 


In English also the substantive is sometimes omitted; thus, we 
say the wicked^ meaning wicked men ; the Latin would be malt. 

In Latin it is usual to place the substantive before the 
adjective ; thus, a brave man becomes in Latin virfortis. 

By always insisting on the observance of this rule, not only 
will elegance be gained, but, which is far more important, the 
frequent occurrence of false concords will be in a great degree 

In analyzing a sentence, adjectives should never be separated 
fi^m the words which they qualify or describe. Thus, the 
above examples would be analyzed as follows : 


by adverse 


Many (men) 

a brave man. 

are crashed 
does not terrify 

(i.) Mnlti rebns adversis premnntur 
(ii.) Mors vimm fortem non terret. 


Examples of Adjectives qualifying Substantives, ' 

A small ship preserves hardy sailors. 
The whole commonwealth followed new customs. 
All men praise a noble character. 
An idle boy does not love hard * work. 
The State is governed by a few nobles. 
Dionysus deceived them with treacherous words. 
The Roman legions take none alive. 

They acknowledge no glory in victory, no disgrace in flight. 
We have lost all our books. 
You will write many lines *. 

Walls were strengthened, battlements added, towers in- 
creased (in height), and all things prepared. 

In that contest the vast amphitheatre was burnt. 

Apelles himself painted that picture. 

That picture was painted by Apelles himself. 

* Jrduus. * Venus, 

8 APPOSITION, [Pt, I. ch, 3. 

You will not see a sadder sight. 
I have never eaten better bread. 
May he never drink worse wine. 
They are all wearing black garments. 
A huge stone was rolling ' down-from the mountain. 
Ye are idle, ye are idle. 
All the good citizens^ were-present. 
Caesar has slain them all. 
I never saw a more beautiful woman. 
These apples are sweet, those are sweeter. 
Gargara herself wonders-at her own harvests. 
Impious labour has subdued every-thing, 
A brave man will fear God alone. 
Let us avoid so great a danger. 
They all returned unwillingly * into the camp. 
A sure friend is discerned in a doubtful matter. 
The slender moisture deserts the barren sand. 
Fan himself left his ancestral grove and the woodland 

One wolf will not fear many lambs. 

In vain will you gaze-on the vast harvest. 

Three hundred snowy heifers browse the thickets. 

A sudden tempest terrifies sailors more than (one) foreseen. 


Let us consider the sentences- 

(i.) Homulus slew his brother Remus, 
(ii.) The law was proposed by the consul Claudius. 
Here in (i.) we see that the substantive his brother is de- 
scribed, or named, by the substantive Remus, 
In (ii.) the substantive consul is described by Claudius, 

3 Say, W<u being rolled: the ^ ^B,Y,JEvery{quisqtie)'be9t citizen, 

Latin word volvh'e is transitive. ^ Say, Unwilling, 


Pt, I. ch. 3.] EXAMPLES ON APPOSiriON 9 

When substantives describe one another in this way, they 
are said to be in apposition to one another. 

Substantives in apposition must be in the same case. 

Substantives in apposition must be considered as inseparable 
in analysis. 

The above sentences will become in Latin — 

(i.) Bomulus fratrem suum Kemum interfecit. 
(ii.) Lex a Claudio consule rogata est. 

Fratrem and Remum are in the same case, because they are 
in apposition ; and this case is the accusative, because they are 
the object of the verb slew, 

Claudio and consule are in apposition, and they are governed 
by the preposition a, which governs the ablative case. 

Examples on Apposition. 

Agave tore-in-pieces her son Pentheus. 
Cadmus built the city of Thebes \ 
We call our fatherland a parent. 
Socrates sought-for some-one (as) a patron. 
I have seen all the letters T^itten by the tribune Clodius. 
King Tarquin took Gabii by a wicked fraud. 
Appius Claudius made his freedmen senators. 
The man was thrifty (as) a boy. 
Avarice makes men blind. 
Show yourself a man. 
Aulus the dictator set-out from the city. 
Wretched man, you have ruined us all. 
I have seen Hannibal the Carthaginian general. 
The Emperor Caius made his horse consul. 
He lived with Quintus Catulus, both father and son. 
The brothers Tiberius and Caius Gracchus were both slain 
in civil tumult. 

I, your enemy, ask this favour. 

1 Say, The city Thehes. 

10 THE GENITIVE CASE. [Ft. I, ch, 3. 

Those books render-famous Lucius LucuUus, a very brave 
and illustrious man. 

Friends, Romans, fellow-citizens, hear my words. 

We unhappy boys have lost all our books. 

The whole world is divided into two parts, earth and 

The city of Rome * is the acknowledged • capital. 

The poet Ennius wrote many verses before Virgil. 

Behold Italy our fatherland. 

There are three judges in the lower-regions, Minos, Rhada- 
manthus, and u^acus. 

All men called Catiline enemy and parricide. 

You Romans have never been conquered. 

Metellus and Marcus Silanus, the consuls elect^ shared the 
province between them. 

The Genitive Case* 

A third way of qualifying or describing a substantive is by 
using another substantive in the genitive, or possessive case. 

The genitive case is generally known by the word of before 
it : e. g. 

(i.) The gates of the city are open, 
(ii.) He was bewailing his son's death. 
In (i.) the substantive gates is qualified, or described, by the 
substantive city in the genitive case. 

In (ii.) the substantive death is qualified by the substantive 
sorCs in the possessive (i. e. in the genitive) case. 
These would become in Latin — 

(i.) Urbis portae patent, 
(ii.) Mortem filii plorabat. 
The genitive may either precede or follow the word which 
it qualifies, in Latin. 

3 Say, T}he city Bome, ' Noius. ^ Deaiynatut. 

Pt, 7. th. 3.] EXAMPLES ON THE GENITIVE, 11 

In analyzing a sentence, a noun in the.genitive or possessive 
case mnst never be separated from the nonn which it qualifies. 
It may be observed that an adjective and genitive case are 
often interchangeable : thus we might say, 

either, the hinges palace^ or, the royal palace, 
either, the race ofmen^ or, the human race. 
either, a sorCs love^ or, Jilial love ; and so on. 

Examples on the Genitive, 

In human bodies they imitate the life of the gods. 

Death, the end of life, leads us to a new life. 

The speech of the consul stiiTed the whole people. 

Laws do not restrain the vices of men. 

The foreseeing mind of Romulus was-aware-of this. 

We were reading the plays * of Terence. 

The remains of the city were dug-up. , 

The bodies of the slain have been brought into the city. 

All the king's soldiers have surrendered '. 

Not even Fabius could restrain the ardour of his men. 

The very name of peace brings joy. 

The envoys of the colonies were-present, asking help. 

This reasoning of their leader was approved by many in the 

From the difference of their customs the founders of the race 
had foreseen frequent wars. 

The rewards of the informers were not less hated than their 

Piso's speech was graceful •. 

Many signs of the sedition breaking-out were repressed by 
those-in-the-secret *. 

There were not wanting in the Emperor's army the seeds of 

^ Fahula, ' Comis. 

3 Say, Surrendered (dedire) them" ^ Coneciue. 





Just as adjectives are used to qualify nouns, so adverbs are 
used to qualify verbs, adjectives, or otber adverbs : e. g. 
(i.) The lofty pine is often shaken by the wind, 
(ii.) To-morrow's life is too late, 
(iii.) Not always do the showers fall from the clouds. 

In (i.) the verb is shaken is qualified by the adverb ofteun 

In (ii.) the adjective late is qualified by the adverb too. 

In (iii.) the adverb always qualifies the verb^ZZ. 

In analysis adverbs must be considered inseparable from the 
words which they qualify. 

The position of adverbs varies so much, according to the 
emphasis attached to them, that no rule can be given on this 

Instead of adverbs we may have various cases of nouns, 
and phrases, all which must be learnt by degrees from the 
syntex •. . 

It will be found convenient to write all such qualifying 
words and phrases, except adverbs, in the column, which is 
reserved for this purpose, on the extreme right of the page, 
allowing a fresh line to each qualifying phrase : e. g. 

We have seen in our time many changes at Rome. 
Here the two qualifying phrases are in our time^ and at 

The sentence, then, will be* analyzed thus : 





have Been 

many changes 

r in onr time 
t at Rome. 

NoBtris temporibus mnltas vidimus Bomee mutationes. 

« See Pt. III. 

/v. /. ch. 5.] THE COMPOSITE SUBJECT 13 



We have seen that a verb agrees with its subject in num- 
ber and person ; sometimes, however, there are two or more 
subjects joined together by conjunctions: e.g. 

(i.) Hannibal and Philopoemen were carried off by poison, 
(ii.) If you and Tullia are well, Cicero and I are well. 

In (i.) the subject of the verb were carried off is Hannibal 
and Pkilopoemen, 

In (ii.) the subject of the verb are well is, in the first place 
where it occurs, you and Tullia^ and in the second, Cicero 
and /. 

Such subjects as these are called composite subjects. 

A composite subject requires a plural verb. 

A composite subject requires the verb to be in the first 
person rather than the second, and in the second rather than the 

There will be no difficulty in applying these rules, if a 
personal pronoun be inserted between the subject and the 

Thus the first example will be read: 

Hannibal and Philopoemen (they) were carried off by 

The second will stand thus: 

If you and Tullia (you) are well, Cicero and I (we) are 

It will at once be perceived that the verb {they) were carried 
off is in the third person plural; the first verb (you) are well is 
in the second person plural, and the second verb {we) are well 
is in the first person plural. 

In'Latin the first person is always written before the second, 
and the second before the third. 

Thus, when Cardinal Wolsey wrote Ego et Bex meua, he 


wrote correct Latin, althoagh the king was not pleased at 
finding himself mentioned after his minister. 
The above sentences would be analyzed thns: 







Hannibal and 1 
PbilopcBmen J 
Cicero and I 
you and Tullia 

were carried off 

are wall, 
are well. 

j by poison, ahl, 
X. of manner. 

(i.) Veneno absnmpti sunt Hannibal et Philopoemcn. 
(ii.) Si tu et Tnllia valetis, ego et Cicero valemos. 

Examples on the Composite Subject, 

Houses and villages were being destroyed by fire. 
The horse and his rider are overthrown in the sea. 
You and your brother deserve well * of the republic. 
Both I and Balbus lifted up our hands. 
Agamemnon and Menelaus led the Greeks to Troy. 
You and I will return to the Forum. 
Two brothers, Romulus and Remus, founded Rome. 
Syphax and his kingdom were in the power of the Romans. 
The beginning and the end are not in the power of the 
same (man). 

A compound object, i. e. an object compounded of two or 
more nouns connected by conjunctions will present no diffi- 
culty. Each part so connected must of course be in the accu- 
sative case: e. g. 

You have destroyed both our city and our name. 


I I (Yon) I bave destroyed | both our city and our name. | 

Et nrbem noetram et nomen delevisti. 

^ I deserve well of you. Bene de te mereor. 

Pt. I. ch, 6.] 





The verb to be states that its subject is something. 

This something is called the complement {complere^ to fill- 
up), because it completes or fills up the sense: e. g. 

Life is a dream. 
Here the complement is a dream. 

Besides the verb to he^ some passive verbs, such as to he 
called, to become, &c., may be followed hj a complement. 
The complement will generaUj agree with the subject. 
The following sentences are analyzed: 
(i.) Life is a dream, 
(ii. ) No one is bom wise, 
(iii.) Caesar was made prsBtor and consul. 





No one 



is bom 

was made 

a dream, nom, ofcompl, 
wise. if 

(praetor and consul, nom, of 

(i.) Vita est somnium. 
(ii.) Nemo nascitar sapiens, 
(iii.) CsBsar factns est praBtx)r et consul. 

Somnium, sapiens, prcetor et consul, are nominatives of the 

It will be seen that the complement may be either a substan- 
tive, or an adjective, or even two or more substantives or ad- 
jectives linked together. 

Examples on the Nominal^ive of the Complement. 

Elephants are very sagacious. 

The slaves were witnesses against Publius. 

Our soldiers are safe to a man ^ 

^ To a man, ad unum. 


Maulius and his brother will be tribunes of the people. 

Rome is the capital of Italy. 

A commonwealth has been called the best government. 

The judges were good and honest men. 

We were witnesses of all these things. 

The Roman citizens were called Quirites. 

Conquered nations will be made slaves. 

His father was not made prsetor. 

The pro-consul is the brother of the tribune Clodius. 

Cicero has been called the father of his country. 

Virtue and vice are contrary to one another ■. 

You will go safest in a middle (course). 

In that city are many good-men. 

I am a Roman citizen. 

The boy is lazy rather than stupid. 

That gate was called the unlucky gate. 

The hardest stones are called gems. 

You will become older every- day '. 

You will never become learned. 

Moles are bom blind. 


In the light of the past future things are not doubtful, 
i They are at-once poor and proud. 

Many were left half-dead and unharmed in the hurry of victory. 

King Tarquin was called the Proud. 

Grief and terror are feeble bonds of affection. 

Bread will become cheaper in the autumn. 

The fortune of the war was long doubtful. 

Marius was not made careless or insolent by victory. 



If we consider such verbs as / Beem^ I am wontj I am able, 

&c., we see that they carry no meaning when they stand 

> Say, Between themselves. * I» dies. 


alone ; neither do they act on an object ; nor are they followed 
by a nominative of the complement. In fact they can only be 
used as auxiliary verbs, and are always followed by another 
verb in the infinitive mood. These verbs are called prolative 
(from "pro^ and fero^ supine latum), because they may be 
supposed to carry forward the meaning to the infinitive 

This infinitive is called the prolate infinitive. 

In analyzing a sentence containing a prolate infinitive, the 
infinitive must be considered as forming part of the auxiliary 
verb to which it is attached^ 

Thus the sentences — 

(i.) They are wont to bum their dead, 
(ii.) Thou art said to be the father of thy country, 
will be analyzed as follows i 




are wont to born 
art said to be 

their dead. 

the father of thy country. 

(i.) Mortuos urere solent. 
(ii.) Tu patriae diceris esse pater. 

Urere and esse are prolate infinitives. 

Clare must be taken not to mistake the infinitive, which is 
used ill English to express purpose, for the prolate infinitive: 
e. g. in the sentence. We eat to live, to live is not the prolate 
infinitive, but it expresses the purpose of our eating, and must 
be translated into Latin by the conjunction ut, thus : — 

Edimus ut vivamus. We eat, in order that we may live. 

It should be noticed that verbs of endeavouring are generally 
prolate in English, but not so in Latin, except conor. 

Thus, in English we say, we strive to win ; in Latin we say, 
we strive, in order that we may win. 

A few examples are appended on the next page to show the 
difference between this construction and the prolate infinitive. 



(i.) Csesar went to Rome, to see the games, 
(ii.) We ought to strive to conquer, 
(iii.) Pompey sent a messenger to inform the senate. 




••«•■■«•• • •• 

to Rome, 



might see 
onght to strive. 

the games. 



may conquer. 



a messenger. 



might inform 

the senate. 




a messenger. 


might inform 

the senate. 



(i.) Csesar Romam contendit, ut ludos videret. 

(ii.) Debemus eniti, ut vincamus. 

/••• \ -D -«. • i.' -«.• -4. / 'it senatum certiorem faceret. 

(ui.) Fompeius nuntium misit, < . , . „ , 

i.qm senatum certiorem faceret. 

Examples on the Prolate Infinitive. 

Fabricius and Curius were wont to till their land with their 
own hand. 

No one ought to be called happy before death. 

A brave man is unwilling to yield to fortune. 

You and he continue to neglect your dress. 

Xerxes determined to build a bridge across the sea^ 

The army began to advance against the enemy. 

Mettius and the Albani could not deceive the Roman king. 

Prometheus is said to have stolen fire from heaven. 

You and I have preferred to remain in the city. 

They ought to have avoided the danger. 

Cease to pour forth soft complaints. 

I seem to myself to be able to do something in this matter. 

Semiramis was believed by many to be a boy. 

The Romans prefer rather to act than to speak. 

I will cease to appear old. 

I can relate to you many precepts of the ancients. 

* See Pt. III. ch. xix. > Say, to join the sea hy a bridge. 


He dared to enter the camp. 

The shadow of a dog cannot bite. 

This could not have been done by you alone. 

How many historians of his acts is the great* Alexander 
said to have had with him I 

The poet Ennius is supposed to have been sculpt m^ed in 
marble on the tomb of the Scipios. 

Their minds could have been conciliated by ever-so-little * 
liberality of the thrifty old man. 

Fi'om-this-point * I will commence to sing. 

They cannot have wandered from the road. 

Now the well-worn ploughshare begins to glisten in thefurrow* 

Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, dared not trust his neck to a 
bai'ber, but taught his own daughters to shave him. 

He wished not to seem good, but to be good. 

Agathocles, king of Sicily, was accustomed to place earthen- 
ware cups among the gold (ones) on his table. 




We have seen that the direct object of a verb can always 
be found by putting whom or what after the verb, and answer- 
ing the question so formed. If the question formed by whom 
can be answered, the object is of course a person ; if the ques- 
tion formed by what is answered, the object will be a thing. 

Now it sometimes happens that both these questions can be 
answered, and then there are two objects, one of the person, 
and the other of the thing: e.g. 

Ceres taught rustics the arts of husbandry. 
Questions for the object : 

Ceres taught wh(ym ? Adswer, rustics, 

Ceres taught (rustics) what? Answer, the arts of husbandry, 

' Magnus ille, * Quantuluscunque, * Sine. 

c 2 



Here, then, rustics is the object of the person, and the arts of 
husbandry that of the thing. 

Verbs which act on two direct objects are generally verbs 
of asking or teaching. There are a few others, which will best 
be learnt hj experience. Examples: 
(i.) I ask you this favour, 
(ii.) Ceres taught rustics the arts of husbandry. 







Ithis favour^ 


I the arts of husbandry. 

(i.) Hoc beneficium te rogo. 
(ii.) Ceres ruricolas docuit artes agrestes. 

Verbs of asking demand special notice. 
It will be observed that the former of the above examples 
may be rendered in English in three ways : 

(1)1 ask you this favour. 

(2) I ask this favour of (i. e. from) you. 

(3) I ask you for this favour. 

In Latin we may employ only the first two of these methods: e. g. 

(1) Hoc beneficium te rogo. 

(2) Hoc beneficium a te rogo. 

In English, verbs of telling, commanding, and some others, 
act on two direct objects, like verbs of asking and teach- 
ing : in Latin, the thing represents the direct object, and is 
therefore in the accusative case, while the person is in the 
dative case. 

This dative, which is called the dative of the remoter object, 
always represents the person for whose advantage, or otherwise, 
the action takes place. It will be discussed more fully in the 
next chapter. 

Examples on Verbs of Asking and Teaching, 

1 asked Caesar his opinion of the war K 
He taught his son letters. 

^ i. e. Concerning the war. 


We asked them for many things, but they gave us nothing. 
King Solomon asked wisdom of God instead of a long life. 
You have taught us many things to-day. 
He taught me much, and asked no reward of me. 
I asked him many things, but he told me nothing. 
Ceres is said to have taught men the arts of husbandry *. 
We ask of you not tribute, but manhood and men. 
Pray the gods, ye husbandmen, for moist summefs and 
cloudless winters. 

She will be the first to ask * me for help. 
I was the first to ask you for your vote. 



Let us consider the sentences— 

(i.) I will give you nothing, 
(ii.) Stop me that rascal. 
If these be analyzed, it will appear that — 

In (i.) the direct object of the verb will give is nothing. 
And in (ii.) the direct object of the verb stop is that rascal. 
The question presents itself, what position do you and tm 
hold in their respective sentences. 

They represent the persons for whose advantage, or disad- 
vantage, something is done ; and they may be written to you, 
and for me, respectively. 

Thus the sentences may be analyzed as follows: 





will give 

that rascal 

(to) you. 
(for) me. 


These words will now be recognized as dative cases; and 
the sentences will become in Latin : 

2 The arts of husbandry, artes ^ Say, She the first mil ash me, 



(i.) Nihil tibi dabo. 
(ii.) Siste mihi scelus istud. 
A dative used in this way is called the remoter object of 
the verb. 

Examples on the Dative of the Remoter Object, 

The senate had promised the election to Galba. 

Give me that book. 

He told me every thing. 

O Varus, Varus, give me back my legions. 

Fortune has given too much to many, enough to none. 
* Show him the door. 

Solon gave laws to the Athenians, Lycurgus to the Spartans. 

Slaves cultivate the land for others, not for themselves. 

Fortune has given all these things (as) a reward to the 

Every one claims virtue for himself. 

Scipio gave his forces a few days' rest at Massilia. 

Leave me this one child. 

Our ancestors added much to the state in former wars. 

In this way you will get yourself a renowned name. 

He did not give up that time to rest and luxury, after the 
manner of others. 

Tell me your name. 

Bring me his head. 

The consul gave his soldiers all the spoil. 

He will not sell me that farm. 

We owe our parents much. 



Let us consider the sentences — 

(i.) It is human to err. 
(ii.) The good hate to sin for love of virtue. 

Pt, /. ch. lo.] THE VERB-NOUN INFINITIVE. 23 

In the first sentence, when we ask the usual question to find 
the subject, viz. what is (human)? we get for answer, to err. 

This infinitive to err is used, then, like a noun, inasmuch as 
it is the subject of the verb «s. 

In the second sentence, when we ask the usual question 
to find the object of the verb hate^ viz. the good hate what? 
we get for answer, to sin. 

This infinitive, then, to sin, occupies the place usually held 
by a noun, as direct object of a verb. 

Words like these, which partake of the nature both of a verb 
and of a noun, are called verb-nouns. 

Verb-nouns are always neuter in gender. 

The above sentences will of course be analyzed as follows: 




To err 
The good 



to sin 


for love of virtue. 

(i.) Errare est humanum. 

(ii.) Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore. 

A verb-noun may act on an object of its own; and, when 
this is the case, the object so acted on must be considered as 
inseparable from the verb-noun which acts on it: e. g. 

It is base to fear death. 


To fear death I is I I base. I 

Turpe est mortem timere. 

Here the subject of the verb is is composed of the verb-noun 
to fear acting on death an object of its own. 

It will be noticed that in English, when the verb-noun 
infinitive is the subject of the verb, the pronoun it is generally 
placed in apposition to it. 

This pronoun must almost always be omitted in Latin. 

It maybe as well to observe here that, although a theoretical 
difficulty, or even a.difierence of opinion, may exist in distin- 
guishing between the prolate infinitive and the verb-noun 

24 THE VERB^NOUN, [Pt. I. ch, ii. 

infinitive, when the latter is the object of the principal verb, 
yet this will produce no confusion in practice. 

Thus, in the sentence. They 'preferred to remain at home, it is 
immaterial whether to remain be considered as a prolate infini- 
tive, or as the verb-noun standing in the place of object to the 
verb preferred. 

The Latin in either case would be : 

Domi manere maluerunt. 

Examples on the Verb-Noun, 

It is easy to correct the faults of others, but difficult even *to 
see our own. 

It would be dangerous to go-on. 

The old love to gaze-on the sports of the young. 

To many it seems useless to worship the gods. 

It is (the duty *) of a youth to revere old age, and it is (the 
part*) of an old man by wisdom and kindness to gain for 
himself reverence. 

It is ours * to act, yours to speak. 

With so great an army to be conquered by a weary and 
flying foe would be disgraceful. 

It behoves us to await the event. 

The wicked hate to sin for fear of punishment. 

You must remember to keep (your) mind undistijrbed ' in 
difficult circumstances. 

It is often difficult to show both justice and mercy. 



There are two forms of the verb-noun in English : 
1. The infinitive as we have already seen. 

» Vel ' JEquits, 

« Cf. Pt. ni. cb. X. 


2. That formed by adding "ing" to the verb, as walking. 
Thus, we may either say : 

(i.) It is easier to walk than to run. 
or, (ii.) Walking is easier than running. 
In (i.) to walk and to run are verb-nouns, and the corre- 
sponding verb-nouns in (ii.) are walking and running. 
The Latin in either case would be : 

Ambulare facilius est quam currere. 
The verb-noun can be declined in Latin through aU its cases 
by means of the gerunds. Thus : 

Nom. Currere, to run, or, running. 

{Currere, to run, or, running. 
Currendum, running, (used after prepositions 
governing the ace.) 
Gen. Currendi, of running. 
Dat. Currendo, to or for running. 
Abl. Currendo, by running. 
Care must be taken not to confuse the verb-noun with 
the present participle, which also ends in " ing." 

There will not be much danger of this for jp,ny one who 
has learnt to distinguish between a noun and an adjective. 

Examples on the Verb-Noun, 

Talking is easier than being-silent. 

By teaching others we ourselves are taught. 

You will not lessen your grief by mourning. 

To be bom of princes is chance ^. 

Cicero the orator excelled in the art of speaking. 

Let us prepare every thing for * flying before the night. 

An exile lives in the hope of returning to his country. 

It is often more difficult to find an end, than a beginning. 

Labour in business, fortitude in peril, industry in carrying 
on, rapidity in finishing, prudence in foreseeing, all these are 
imperial virtues. 

» Fortuitus, adj. 2 Ad. 


Not only were their arms ready, but their service * and love 
of obeying. 

Not even our own age has neglected to hand down to pos- 
terity the acts and characters of illustrious men. 

Men alone of animals delight in destroying their own kind. 

Give your attention, ye young, to learning, leave talking to 
the old. 

We are become weary of waiting. 

Let us deliberate about retumiug home. 

It will not be inglorious to have fallen at the very limit of 
land and nature. 

The glory of saving the city will be yours. 

All things have been prepared for commencing play. 

They will save themselves, if they can, by running-away. 

Let it be your care to learn-beforehand the wind, and the 
changing mood* of the sky. 

Either learn or depart ; there remains a third lot, — to be 

He was a man better adapted for silence than speech ^ 

Let not so dire a lust of ruling be thine, my son. 

Many good men have considered it rather as confidence in 
their integrity, than as arrogance, to relate their lives them- 

Let all the soldiers anoint themselves before fighting. 

It was once a peculiarity • of the Roman people to make war 
far from home, and with the outworks of their power to 
defend the fortunes of their allies, not their own roofs. 

He himself had not the power of commanding or forbidding : 
he was not an emperor, but a cause of war. 

By hesitating and putting off you lose great opportunities. 

To have the same wishes and aversions^, this is sure friendship. 

Ye search-out every thing by sea and land for the sake of 
e&ting (it). 

3 Obsequium, • Propriutn. 

4 Mos. 7 Say, To vnsh and not-to-with 
^ 8Ay flbrhein^'Silent'^f or speaking, ^ the-same'thin^t. 


Moved by the desire of ruling, or through the arrogance of 
the magistrates, the common people have often separated ^ from 
the senate. 

They think it of great (moment) to have slain the tribunes 
of the people. 

It is a greater disgrace to lose things acquired, than never 
to have gained them at-all. 

To do what you like with-impunity, that is to be a king. 

Do not ruin the good by pardoning • the bad. 

So, by prohibiting from faults, rather than by punishing, in a 
short time he consolidated ^® his army. 

They think themselves the more illustrious in recounting 
the brave acts of their ancestors. 



Theib food is simple,fruit of-the-field, fresh game S or curded milk. 

I have taken up the cause of the republic. 

He saw a roof beautifully inlaid. 

The lands are occupied by all in-their-tum *. 

They despise the laboured ' honour of monuments, as burden- 
some to the deceased ^ 

No one would devote himself to death for his country, 
without great hope of immortality. 

This opinion his disciple Pythagoras very-much strengthened. ^ 

The greatness of the Roman people carried respect beyond 
the ancient bounds of the empire. 

They hang traitors and deserters on trees, cowards and 
idlers * they drown in a swamp. 

The consent of all is the voice of reason. 

* SecedXre. s Invioem, 

* Ignoach'et governs dat. • Operosus, 
'<> IWmare. * Defunetus* 

* Jtecensfera, * Jjgnaviu* 


They do not reckon the number of the days, as we (do), but 
of the nights. 

The men of this country transact no business, either public 
or private, except in-arms •. 

They wished to depart for Rome ^ with me. 

Very few states of Sicily have been subdued by our ances- 
tors in war. 

I would not have believed this about the statues, unless I had 
seen them lying on the ground shattered-to-pieces ®. 

The Gauls fight with the same weapon hand-to-hand*, or 
from- a-distance, as occasion demands. 

Concerning lesser matters the chiefs deliberate, concerning 
greater (matters) all (of them). 

It is worth while ^^ to know the actual law ". 

Rome, the capital of the world, was not built by Balbus, but 
by Romulus. 

No one would leave Italy or Africa, and betake himself to 
Germany, unless it were his fatherland. 

The atrocity of the punishment irritated the feelings of the 
two "most noble Greek states in Italy. 

In all battles the eyes are conquered first. 

To labour is to pray. 

1 have lived at Rome, at Athens, and at Corinth, and every- 
where have 1 found friends. 

1 would rather err with Plato, than perceive the truth " with 
such-men-as-these ". 

It is especially a disgrace to have left the shield (behind), 
and " it is not lawful for the man disgraced ** to attend religious 
ceremonies, or to enter the council. 

« Say, armed, ^^ Say, 2%c law Uself, 

r Cf. Pt. III. ch. ii. >2 Verum. 

s Disjectus, ^^ Such a man as this, implying 

* Hand-to-hand, cominus; from- contempt, iste. 

a-distance, eminus, ^^ And not, nee, 

^^ Itis toorth tohile, opera pretium u Ignominiosus, 


Husbands in that country have the power of life and death 
over " their children. 

The Nervii, driven from this hope, surrounded their winter- 
quarters " with a ditch and rampart. 

A painter could not better describe his appearance. 

Diodotus the stoic lived many years at my house, blind. 

He could not remain there many days, for want " of pro- 

Home and Carthage were the greatest cities in the world. 

The Campanians looking-on " had filled not only the rampart 
of the camp, but even the walls of the town. 

Good manners there avail *® more, than good laws elsewhere. 

The Germans all have ** the same make " of body, fierce blue 
eyes **, yellow hair, huge frames **, strong only for ** a sudden 

Their land is every-where either awful with forests, or 
dank *• with marshes. 

Epaminondas, in my opinion the first man ^^ in Greece, is said 
to have played excellently on the lyre. 

They are accustomed to lay open vaults under the earth, 
(as) a receptacle for their fruit *'• 

Day is pushed-on by day, and new moons hasten to wane *•. 

Tiberius wished to give corn to the people without price. 

These words of Chrysis about Glycerium are written in my 

Quintus Fabius and Cains Julius were made consuls that 

The.-^qui were besieging Ortona, a Latin city. 

Some few, trusting in .their strength, strove ^^ to swim-over. 

16 In, 24 Corpus, 

17 Winter quarters, hihema. ** Ad. 

18 ]^or want, inopia. ^6 FoBdus, 

1' Jjookinff on, prospicientes. '^ Say, The first man (princeps) 

so Valere, of Chreece. 

21 Cf. Pt. III. ch. xvii. 28 i.e. Of their fruit. 

82 Habitus, 29 Jnterire, 

23 Say, Fierce and blue, ^o Contendere, prolative. 


The quarrels of lovers are the renewal " of love. 

Not all men do shrubs delight, and the lowly tamarisks. 

The Helvetii are every- where kept-in ■* by the nature of the 

I have seen the remains of ancient Rome. 

Caesar was killed by many conspirators. 

Amongst these was his friend Brutus. 

He has found a pleasant abode, he will not return hither. 

Ye have been weeping, all (of you). 

They cannot find an enemy, they will fight among them- 

She has black hair and blue eyes. 

Not even thieves will deceive their friends. 

We were all much frightened, especially Titinius. 

One hundred thousand men laid-down their arms. 

Hunger is a terrible enemy. 

They must carry the bodies of the slain out-of the city. 

We are all attracted by the desire of praise, and all the best 
men^ are led-on by glory. 

The expectation of the poet Archias surpassed the fame of 
his genius, and his arrival and admiration (for the man) sur- 
passed the expectation. 

Before Jupiter no husbandmen subdued the field. 

Some say one thing, some another, not even two agree. 

You cannot deceive me with vain words. 

Tmolus sends saflron odours, India ivory, the soft SabsBi their 
incense, but the naked Chalybes send iron. 

Deucalion cast stones into the empty world, whence sprung 
men, a hardy race. 

Thou comest as God of the vast sea, and sailors will worship 
thy deity alone. 

In vain do ye ask peace of us, while ye prepare for war ". 

He distributed money frugally, and not as (a man) about-to- 

8^ Integratio, ^^ Say, Every (quisque) best man. 

*5« Continere. "* Say, Prepare war. 


She is extremely angry, and not without reason, for her 
maidservant has left her alone. 

In vain he tried to deceive us, the scoundrel ! 

Whose are the pictures ? they are Zeno's. 

The coward boasts, that lie may be thought brave. 

He was rejoicing, because he had slain a foe. 

Talking is easy, it is much more difficult to be silent. 

The foolish love to talk, the v^ise to be silent. 

The children to the Tiber, the mother to the tomb ! 

They said this to escape punishment, but they will be 
punished notwithstanding. 

I shall sell my coat to get money. 

Of the two brothers, one ** killed his enemy, the other'* was 
himself slain. 

The hill was more handy for flight than the plain. 

Nothing was done on plan or by command, chance governed 
every thing. 

Four elephants were taken, the rest, forty in number, were 

No one of all the Numidians followed the king out-of the 

The field planted with shrubs hindered the view. 

During "• these delays Metellus suddenly showed himself with 
his army. 

The plain was strewn with darts, weapons, and corpses, and 
between them the earth was dyed with blood. 

After the slaughter of Caius Gracchus and Marcus Fulvius, 
many of your order were slain in prison. 

Catiline hurried home from the senate. 

The Africans are of healthy frame, and enduring of toil. 

** One — the others alter — alter, ^6 inter* 





When we find complete sentences occupying the place of 
nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, or linked by conjunctions to the 
principal sentence, these sentences are called clauses. 

The relative clause is that clause which contains the relative 

The relative clause always begins, both in Latin and Eng- 
lish, with the relative itself, and ends with the first break in 
the sense. 

Thus in the sentence — 

We worship God who created us, 
the relative clause is who created us. 

So in the sentence — 

The city, which Romulus built, was called Rome, 
the relative clause is which Romulus builL 

In analyzing a sentence containing a relative clause, 
the relative clause must always be treated as a separate 

It will be found useful to enclose the relative clause within 
brackets, or to cover it up with the finger, till the principal 
sentence has been analyzed. 

— 1 

Pt. IL ch. I.] 



The following sentences are analyzed : 
(i.) We worship God who created us. 
(ii.) The city which Romulus built was called Rome, 
(iii.) All Gaul is divided into three parts, of which the Belgas 
inhabit one, the Aquitani another, and the third those who in 
our tongue are called Celts, in their own, Gauls. 








The city 
the Belgse 
the Aqoifcani 




was called 


is divided 




are called 
(are called) 



one of which, 
the third. 


into three parts. 


\ in their own tongue* 


\in ours. 

^.) Deum veneramnr, qui nos creavit. 
(ii.) li^bsj qnam Bomulos condidit, Boma vocata est. 
(iii.) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quamm nnam incolunt Belgse, 
aliam Aquitani, tertiam, qui ipsomm linguft CeltiB, nostrft Galli, appellantur. 

It will be noticed that the relative clause is an adjectival 
clause, i. e. it occupies the place of an adjective, inasmuch as it 
describes some noun going before it. 

Thus in (i.) the relative clause, who created us, describes the 
substantive God ; and in (ii.) the clause, which Romulua built, 
describes the city. 

This noun, which the relative clause describes, is called the 
antecedent {ante, before, cedo, I go) to the relative. 

The relative must agree with its antecedent in gender, 
number, and person; thus, in (i.) qui is masculine, singular, 
and of the third person, to agree with Deum; and in (ii.) 
quam is feminine, singular, to agree with urha. 

Difficulty is often experienced at first in assigning to the 
relative its correct place as subject or object ; or in determining 
its person correctly, when it is the subject of the verb in its own 



clause: these difficulties will often be removed by substituting 
for the relative the personal pronoun, with the conjunction and. 
Thus, the above examples may be read — 
(i.) We worship God, and he created us. 
(\\.) The city, and it Romulus built, was called Rome. 
The relative is often omitted in English, when it is the 
object of the verb in its own clause. 
Thus when we say: 

I never received the letters you sent, 
we mean the letters which you sent. 

The relative, however, must never be omitted in Latin. 
The position of the relative clause is much the same in Latin 
as in English: it generally comes immediately after the antece- 
dent which it describes. 

The relative always stands first in its clause; and it 
must be remembered that, when the relative clause has once 
been begun, it must be finished before the principal sentence 
is resumed. 

The relative may have a verb-noun, or even a complete 
sentence, for its antecedent. In either of these cases, the relative 
will be in the neuter gender: e. g. 

(i.) To retreat, which you advise, is not the part of 

a Roman general, 
(ii.) I came in time, which is of all things the first. 
Li (i.) the antecedent of the relative which is the verb-noun, 
to retreat. 

In (ii.) the antecedent of the relative which is the complete 
sentence, / came in time. 
The Latin will be — 

(i.) Pedem referre, quod tu suades, non est imperatoris 

(ii.) In tempore veni, quod rerum omnium est primum. 
It will be noticed that in English we frequently say a« you 
advise, instead of which you advise. This use of as instead of a 
relative is very conmion in English, as will be seen in the chapter 
on correlatives. 


Examples on the Relative Clause. 

Fabius alone upheld the state, which the army was betraying 
thrctugh hatred of the eonsul. 

Let us avoid those things which appear to be evil, and 
follow good. 

They drove away the Samnites who were around the gates, 
and took-possession-of the walls. 

^ We, who are going-to-be your judges, cannot receive money 
from you. 

Then the camp, which had been burnt by the Romans, gave 
certain signs of victory. 

Out of seven thousand citissens, only six hundred were found 
who returned safe to the city, 

Brutus, by whom Caesar was murdered, afterwards slew 
himself with his own hand. 

All those men to whom we gave freedom have deserted us 
in this matter. 

Those who wish to die happy, ought to look forward to the 
end of life. 

We ought to love those by whom we are loved, but not ^ to 
hate those who hate us. 

All their strength is in their infantry, whom they load with 
tools ', and baggage, besides their arms. 

The vestiges of their ancient renown remain far and wide, 
camps and clearings *, by the circuit of which even now you 
may estimate the former power of the nation. 

They collect amber, which they call glesmn. 

Their sole reliance is on their arrows, which they point with 
bone, for want * of steel. 

Formerly those who wished to change their abode were 
conveyed in fleets, not by land. 

Immediately after sleep, which they generally prolong into 
the day, the Germans bathe, usually in warm water *. 

1 Neque. ^ For want, inopid. 

* Ferramenta, * Warm water, calida agreeing 

* Spatia. with aqua understood. 

D 2 


If the State in which they are bom be dull • by reason of 
a long peace, most of the young nobles of their own accord 
seek those nations which are then carrying on some war. 

The dog he was leading was blind. 

I, who lent you the money, am ruined ^ 

The contest of which you were speaking is over*. 

He whose life is sincere will alone be happy. • 

The city he lives in was called " The Long White (City)" by 
its founder. 

Give me back the money you have taken. 

The servant He lives with is old and faithful. 

The city by whose ruins we are surrounded was once the 
capital of a great empire. 

He who reads little will know little. 

This is the GU)d whose altars ye have cast-down, and whose 
temple ye have defiled. 

Speak, ye who know. 

The man of whom you speak is very rich. 

Let me see the horses which you bought. 

Those things seemed the best whose time was-gone-by*. 

That which among good men is friendship, among bad is 

will strive with all our might ^' for the liberty which 
we have received from our ancestors. 

I fear treason, which I am endeavouring to avoid by rapidity 
(of movement). 

They carried their gold and silver, and other things which 
are considered of-most- value ", to the royal abode. 

They easily obtained what they sought. 

There was a large and powerful town among vast solitudes, 
Caspa by name, of which Hercules is said to have been the 

What others (have learnt) by books, I have learnt by service. 

^ Tohe duU, torpere, • Effugere, pluperf. 

7 Perire, use the perfect. ^<^ Swnmd ope, 

■ Peractut, i» Say, Firat. 

Pt. 11. ch. 2.] CORRELA TIVES, 37 

That which they arrogate to themselves from another's 
valour, they will not allow me from my own. 

That party prevailed in the senate, which preferred favour 
and bribery to truth. 

He gives twice, who gives soon. 

We seek liberty, which no good man loses except with his life". 

'Twas I who broke that window. 

The man who can dig can always gain a livelihood. 

The horses he has bought are strong and handsome. 

The house in which I live was built by Balbus himself. 

Give back the money you have taken. 

I will buy the very ass on which he rides. 

All things are profane there which with us are hallowed. 

The very porches with which the temple was surrounded 
were an excellent outwork. 


Britain is the largest of the islands which Bomi^n knowledge 

The Britons display more ferocity than the Gauls, ae (men) 
whom prolonged peace has not yet enervated ^^ 

Caligula was flattered by those whose children he had slain, 
*nd whose goods he had confiscated. 

The picture he was speaking of was painted by Apelles. 



The pronominal adjectives the same (idem), such (talis), as 
great or so great (tantus), as many or so mxmy (tot), are not 
followed by a conjunction in Latin, as in English, but by their 
proper correlatives as they are called. Thus, 

The same as becomes in Latin idem qui*. 

Such as becomes talis qualis. 

J* Cum anim& nmul, * Idem, however, may also be 

IS HmolUre, followed by the coi^cmction oc. 



\PL 11. ck. 2. 

A9 great as becomes tantua qaantaa. 
As many as becomes tot qttot. 
The correlatives, qualisy quantusy quoty follow the same 
rules as the relative qui. Thus, 

(1.) The correlative clause will be a complete sentence 

in itself. 
(2.) The correlative will stand first in its own clause. 
(3.) The correlative will agree in gender, number, and 
person, with its proper antecedent; while its 
case will depend on the position it fills in its 
own clause. 
The following example is analyzed: 

The calamity was not as great as we have seen before. 


The calamity 
as (we) 

was not 
have seen 

as great 


Glades ea non tanta erat, qnantam antea vidimus. 

Where as it is translated by qaantaniy correlative to tanta. 

If there are two or more of the above antecedents in the 
principal clause, they must each be followed by their proper 
correlative: e.g. - 

In Germany the forests are as many, and as great, as in Granl. 







fas many and as great 
1 in Germany, 
in Gkiul. 

In Germani& sylvsB tot, tantsBqne sunt, quot, qiiantaeqae in GkdliA. 

It will be observed that in English each of the relatives, qui 
(relating to idem), quantus, qiialis, quot, is rendered by the 
conjunction as with a pronoun either expressed or understood. 

It has been shown in the chapter on the relative that the 
relative, when it describes a noun, is equivalent to the con- 
junction and with a personal pronoun; it has also been shown 
in this chapter that the correlatives qui (relating to idem\ 
quantuSy qualisy and quoty are equivalent to the conjunction as 


with a personiil pronoun: it is desirable to call attention to 
this again, as it will be referred to hereafter •• 

Examples on Correlatives. 

I am not such as I was. 

There were as many opinions as men. 

He will buy as many books as have been written. 

I am as great a man as you. 

It does not happen to-any-man-you-please to have such 
fortune, as (that) of Polycrates. 

Hercules' exploits were as many, and as great, as have ever 
been heard-of. 

The cruelty of this geneitkl towards prisoners was such as 
no one, in any age has shown before. 

Accordingly collect your strength, and show yourself such as 
you ought to be; not as daily idleness, and intercourse with 
wicked (men), have made you. 

You will be so-much * the safer, as you spare yourself less 
in the fight. 

He is just such a man as his father was. 

Such women as I have seen will never be seen again. 

His boyhood and youth were such as I have shown. 

By two acts, the one most disgraceful, the other illustrious, 
he has deserved at-the-hands-of * posterity just-so-much • good 
reputation as bad. 

Tares grow in the same ^rrow as wheat. 

There are as great virtues in this one man, as there have 
been in all other generals whom we have seen or heard of. 

Let every one drink as much as he wishes. 

This is the same old man we saw at Capua. 

No one has ever ventured to wish-for so many and such 
great things, as the immortal gods have granted to Cnseus 
Pompeius of their own accord. 

* See Pt. III. ch. xix. ■ Say, Just so much (tantumdem) 
» Say, Sy-sO'much (tanto), of good reputation, Sfc, 

* Apud, 

40 QUESTIONS. [Ft, II, ch. 3. 



Questions are formed in English in two ways — 

1. By means of an interrogative pronoun or adverb : e. g. 

(i.) Who has spoken ? 

(ii.) How long will you escape destruction ? 

2. By placing the auxiliary verb before the subject : e. g. 

(i.) Is thei-e so great wrath in celestial minds ? 
(ii.) Do you compare Virgil with Homer ? 
The former of these methods calls for very little explanation. 
The question, on being analyzed, will be very similar to a 
relative clause, and it will only be necessary to place the 
interrogative word first in the sentence, just as the relative 
was placed first in its clause. 

As in English relative and interrogative words are the same, 
it will be necessary to remember that this is not always the 
case in Latin. Thus, the relative who is qui^ but the inter- 
rogative who is quia; so the conjunction when is quumj but the 
interrogative when is quando, and so on. These distinctions 
must be learnt from the gi'ammar or dictionary. 

In translating questions of the second kind into Latin, they 
must be made to begin with num, ne (enclitic), or nonne. 
Of these particles, 

Ne merely shows that a question is intended and not a state- 
ment : e. g. 

Rediitne incolumis ? has he returned in safety ? 
Num expects the answer no : e. g. 

Num rediit incolumis ? has he (really) returned in safety? 
Nonne expects the answer yes, and corresponds to the English 
not in a question : e. g. 

Si ille dixerit, nonne tu respondebis ? If he speaks, will not 
you answer ? 
If the question consists of two or more clauses linked to- 


gether, or must be translated by an or ne •; and or not by anjwn 
or necne f : e. g. 

(i.) Will you have peace, or war ? 
Pacemne, an belluml 
Pacem, an bellum > mavultis ? 
Pacem, bellumne J 
(ii.) Will you have peace or not ? 
Pacem vultis, annon ? 
It will be seen that the interrogative particle may be 
omitted in the former member of a doable question. 

Examples on Questions. 
Who has spoken ? 
What said Cains ? 
Do you wisli to return ? 
How many changes have we seen ? 
Have you not heard the reports ? 
Where are the ambassadors ? 
Can good be an evil to any man ? 

Does pleasure make a man better or ^ more praiseworthy ? 
Is that your fault or ours ? 
Must I not bewail ' such a young man as Caius ? 
Where are those men whom I saw at Philippi ? 
What do you accuse me of, if I do my duty ? 
Do you not see me still panting from running ? 
Have you then become rich ? 
Why did you not come ? 
Is it seemly for you to oppose my precepts ? 
Which of these two men shall we imitate ? 
Have they not divided the spoil ? 
Do you prefer Csecuban or Falemian * ? 
He that made the eye, shall he not see ? 

* Ne, however, must not follow ne. ^ Pres. subjunctive. 

f Necne is used in indirect qnes- > Say, What do you accuse tome? 

tions only. See Pt. II. ch. v. ^ Understand wine (vinum), 

1 Aut, not an, since it does not 
introduce a new clause. 


Is this a day to be marked with chalk, or charcoal ? 

You are not mad are you ^ ? or are you cautiously mocking 
me by prophecying obscure (events) ? 

Do ye hear, or does a pleasing madness mock m^ ? 

Why do we boldly * aim-at ^ many things in our short life ? 

What exile from his country has also escaped himself? 

How long shall we suffer this^ my brave men ? 

Do you, Quirites, bom for empire, endure slavery with a 
quiet mind ? 

Who are these who have taken-possession-of ^ the state ? 



Indirect Enunciation {EnUnciatio Ohliqua), 

Sometimes when looking for the subject or t>bject of a verb, 
we find not a noun, nor even a verb-noun, but a complete 

Such a sentence is called oblique or indirect • : e. g. ^ 
(i.) It was reported that Csesar had conquered the Grauls. 
(ii.) He will hear that the citizens have Whetted the steel, 
(iii.) I know not what is the opinion of the people concerning me. 
In (i.), on asking the question for the subject, e. g. What 
was reported ? we get for answer, 

CcBsar had conquered the OaulSy 
which, it will be observed, is a complete sentence in itself. 

In (ii.) on asking the question for the object, e. g. He will 
hear what ? we get for answer. 

The citizens have whetted the steeL 

* What interrogatiye particle is * Oceupcwe, 

used, when the answerno is expected? * Provided it does not represent 

* Usean a^ective agreeing with ice. the exact words of any speaker. Seo 
' Jaeulari. Pt. II. ch. vii. 


And in (iii.) the object of the verb, know not, is the question, 

What is the opinion of the people concerning me ? 
Sometimes whole pages consist of indirect sentences linked 
together, forming a speech or report* 

Indirect sentences are formed in different ways, according as 
they are statements, questions, or commands. 

We will first deal with the indirect or oblique statement, 
or as it is sometimes called enunciatio obliqua. 

In turning oblique statements into Latin, two rules must be 
observed, one for the principal verbs, the other for the sub- 
ordinate verbs. 

(1.) The principal verbs must be in the infinitive mood, 
and their subjects and complements in the accu- 
sative case. 
(2.) The subordinate verbs must be in the subjunctive 
The tenses will generally be unchanged; but it must be 
remembered that in the infinitive mood the present and im- 
perfect tenses are the same, and also the perfect and pluperfect. 
In English the future tense is often rendered obliquely by 
would : e. g. 

Caesar said that he would come. 
The present tense is sometimes rendered by should : e. g. 

It is disgraceful that m£n should (t.e. do) lie. 
The subject of the principal verb in an oblique statement 
must be expressed, even when it is a personal pronoun. 

An oblique statement is usually introduced in English by the 
conjunction that : this word must not be translated into Latin. 
Like the verb-noun infinitive, an indirect sentence often 
has the pronoun it placed in apposition to it, when standing in 
the place of subject to a verb : this pronoun is not to be ex- 
pressed in Latin. 

It will be found convenient to underline the oblique part of 
a sentence, and analyze it separately. 

* The subordinate clauses are nientioned as adjectival, and ad- 
adjectival and adverbial clauses. verbial clauses will be discussed in 
Relative clauses have already been ch. ix. 



\Pt. 11. ck. 4- 






s "fe e 




















u "^ 

© s 

•A "i-i -^ "a ^ 



$ S S S 



»H 'S -a ^ 








. M 

• * 






















• w* 


















2"^ -a ^ _2 I 

© ^ 
© '« 

3 a 


Examples of Indirect Enunciation. 

I believe you are lazy, rather than stupid. 

I hear that you have been again vanquished. 

We hear that you caught seven fish. 

I did not believe you would catch a single fish. 

They say that fish are very cunning. 

They say that their city will never be taken. 

We know that men cannot see themselves. 

You say you are a better ^ general. 

I said an older, not a better. 

Do you believe that those islands will be submerged ? 

They say that the city will be taken ; I cannot believe it 
will be burnt. 

He is writing a pamphlet to prove that flowers can feel. 

Do you think that he can be a traitor ? 

Believe me that honesty is better than craft. 

I hear that you and I, Sextius, are being deceived. 

They say that they are happy. 

We willingly confess that a good man is happier than a 

I do not think the same men are likely-to-retum. 

We know there is a God. 

You said that you would finish the business alone. 

It was reported that Carthage had been taken by Scipio. 

They say that there is com in Egypt. 

Do you remember that he sold asses to that merchant ? 

I have heard the gods themselves cannot recall their gifts. 

A messenger came to Rome, and reported that he had seen 
crowds of barbarians crossing the Ister. 

I do not think that the city will be taken. 

Do you think one thing is just at Rome, another in 
Sicily ? 

That prince of authors, the divine Julius, has handed- 
down (to us) that the aflfoirs of the Gauls were formerly more 

* Peritior, 


prosperous, and hence it is credible that the Grauls even 
crossed into Geimany. 

The tablets are in the midst (of you), and-thej cry-out that 
they are falsified • and interlined •. 

It is clear that that money will not be ^returned. 

The Romans are wont to say that their city is everlasting. 

Who dared to say that Caesar sent gifts so worthless ? 

I cannot believe that death is the end of all things. 

I say that he alone is happy, who is contented with his 

They say there is no food left, we must eat oui' horses. 

I confess that most books are hateful to me. 

They think they are safe at last. 

Cato exclaimed daily in the senate, that Carthage was to 
be blotted-out. 

He has dared to say that you are mad.. 

They think that the souls of those slain in battle are 

It seemed more expedient for ^ all contingencies of the new 
dynasty * that Titus should remain with the army. 

You see other nations go to battle, the Catti to war. 

It is certain that many kinds of wild-animals are produced 
in these forests, which are not seen in other parts. 

They think there is something holy and prophetic in 
women ; and they neither despise their advice, nor neglect 
their answers. 

The ambassadors said that Hannibal, without the permission 
of the senate, had crossed, not only the Iberus, but also the 
Alps, and had waged war on his own account against the 

I myself agree with the opinions of those who think that 
the Germans are tainted' by marriages with no other 
nations ^. 

^ Corruptus, * PrincvpaUu, 

8 InierlUus, ' * Infectus, 

* Ad. ^ Genitive. 


Let us consider that the body of brave men is mortal, but 
the motions of the soul and the glory of virtue is eternal. 

They are so ignorant, that they do-not-know that Horace 
was a poet. 

I have often heard from Agricola himself that Ireland could 
be conquered and held by a single legion and a few auxiliaries. 

A persistent * report, that he had been cut off by poison, 
increased their commiseration. 

Know that illustrious men can exist even imder bad princes. 

Can it be true that the elephants which formerly inhabited 
Europe were covered with long hair ? 

Do you think that the Romans have the same valour in war, 
as licentiousness in peace ? 

Thales, the Milesian philosopher, used to say that it is of 
all things most difficult to know one's self, but very easy to 
admonish another. 

^ Hannibal said he had seen many crazy old men, but no one 
who played-the-madman like Phormio. 



Indirect Questioiis (Interrogatio Ohliqua)', 

Let us consider the sentences — 

(i.) It is uncertain who was speaking. 

(ii.) I know not whether he is able to finish the matter alone. 

In (i.) the question who was speaking stands as subject to 
the verb is ; hence it is an indirect question. 

In (ii.) the question whether he is able to finish the matter 
alone stands as object to the verb know not ; hence this also is 
an indirect question. 

In an indirect question the verb must always be in the 
subjunctive mood. 

In other respects indirect questions are like direct questions. 

* Cotutam, 


The following examples are analyzed : 
(i.) It is uncertain who was speaking. 
(ii.) I know not whether he is able to finish the matter alone. 





Who woe epeaking 

{he) alone 


w(u epeaking, 
know not 

{whether he ia 
able to finish the 
matter alone, 
the matter. 

is able to finish 

(i.) Dabinm ent quis diceret, 

^i.) Nescio an n^otium solus eonfioere possit. 


The direct question, Who was speaking? would be Quis 
dicebat 7 instead of diceret. 

So, Is he able to finish the matter alone? would heNegotiumne 
solus conficere potest ? not possit. 

Examples of Indirect Questions. 

It is uncertain what he will do in this matter. 

Tell me * who you are. 

No one can tell how long he will live. 

Ye see how great power he had, ye know what he has done. 

He cried out that he wondered on what fate he had &llen. 

What does it matter ' whether I perish by disease, or by 
theft and rapine. 

The consul inquired why he, a private individual, was 
speaking publicly. 

This story shows us what-sort-of a reward the wicked are 
wont to return for favours. 

He inquired-of the consul whether it were allowed to fight 
out of the ranks against an enemy challenging ' him. 

Tarquin ventured to put it to the nation * whether they were 
willing he should reign. 

Who knows whether the gods will grant what you ask ? 

* Dative. • Provocans, 

3 What does U matter, quid ^ To put it to the nation^ferre ad 

refert, popuUm. 


Socrates, being asked of-what-country • he was, answered 
of-the-world •. 

He began to inquire of me whether I knew any ^ Demaenetus, 
a son of Strato. 

Then they were removed from the senate-hoase, and the 
senators were asked what they thought was to-be-done in 
such a matter. 

He knew what the barbarian tormentor was preparing for 

I doubt whether the gods have denied them silver and gold 
in-anger, or in-favour '. 

Let any one say about what matter he wishes to dispute. 

Whether-of-the-two, death or life, be better, the gods know; 
for my part I think that no human being ' knows. 

What does it matter whether you commit what you have to 
an abyss, or never use it. 

Do you write back of how many *^ you wish to be one ? 

You see what the cause is, now consider what is to-be-done. 

Where are your books, boy ? tell me where your books arfe. 

Who is that old man ? tell me what his name is. 

You would inquire of me, Gratius, why I am so charmed 
with this man. 

Who is ignorant what disasters our armies suffer on account 
of the avarice of their generals ? 

How he excels in prudence, how (he excels) in weight and 
fluency of speaking, you, Quirites, have often recognized from 
this very place. 

It is difficult to say whether the enemy more fear his valour 
(when) fighting, or love his clemency (when) conquered. 

We do not ask you how many the foe may be, but where 
they be. 

The Athenians know what is right, but neglect to do it. 

5 Cuja9. * Skv, Anffrif, or propitious, 

' Mundcmu9, adjective agreeing * Suman being, homo. 

with citizen understood. 10 Say, The hoto-manifeth (quotus) 

7 Whether any, Ecquis, you wish to be, 



His slaves denied that they knew where he was. 

I do not know whether ye be great and wise; men ye are not 

It was not-very " certain whether the senate would approve 
such an action ", or whether they would reverse the decree of 
the consul. 

It was uncertain whether it were safer to fly, or to i*emain. 

I doubt whether to trust less to their valour, or to their good 



Indirect Commands (Petitio Obltqua), 

When a sentence stands as subject or object to verbs of 
asking, conunanding, advising, encouraging, and such like, it 
will generally be in the nature of a command. This is what is 
meant by an oblique command : e. g. 

(i.) All cry out he should perform what he had undertaken, 
(ii.) Tithonus prayed the gods that he might live for ever. 
In (i.) the object of the verb cr^ out *, is the indirect 
command, he should perform what he had undertaken. 

In (ii.) the verb prayed acts on two objects, viz., the 
person, gods, and the thing, that he might 'live for ever; this 
latter being an indirect command. 

An oblique command is formed in Latin by ut (commanding), 
or ne (forbidding), followed of course by the subjunctive mood. 
The conjunction ut, however, is very often omitted. 
As these verbs of asking, &c., are usually followed in 
English by an infinitive, it is necessary to guard 'ligainst mis- 
taking this construction for a prolate infinitive : e. g. 

(i.) The senate commanded the consuls to levy an army. 
(ii.) I warn you not to depart from Borne. 

II Forum. ject of the verb cry out can only 
1' A disgraceful act,flagitium. be an object of kindred meaning. 

* It will be noticed that the ob- 



In these examples, the infinitives to levy an army^ not to 
depart from Borne, are not prolate, but they are indirect 
commands ; and stand as objects to the verbs commanded, and 
warn, respectively. 

It will at once be remarked that these infinitives may 
very properly be considered as infinitives expressing purpose. 
This is really the case; and, in fact, we have already seen that 
an infinitive expressing purpose is translated into Latin in 
precisely the same way as an oblique command, viz., by ut or 
ne, with the subjunctive mood. 

There are some verbs of asking, &c., which are not followed 
by an oblique command in Latin, but by the " accusative with 
infinitive" construction. These can only be learnt by experience. 
It may be observed, however, that the constructions which 
follow any particular verb will always be found by looking out 
the verb in a Latin-English dictionary. 

Since indirect sentences always occupy the place of nouns, 
they are called substantival sentences. 

The following sentences are analyzed : 

(i.) All cry out he should perform what he had undertaken, 
(ii.) I warn you not to depart from Rome, 









cry out 

should perform 
had undertaken 


must not depart 

J he should perform 
\what he had undertaken, 


\not to depart from JRome. 


(i.) Omnes clamant prcBstaret quod recepisset. 
(ii.) Moneo te ne Romd discedas. 

Examples of Indirect Commands. 

Beware not to be angry. 

He warned them not to bring the state into extreme danger 
by their disagreement and obstinacy. 

E 2 


Permit me to prevail-on * you, father. 

On his way Orgetorix persuaded Casticus to seize the 
kingdom, which his father had held previouply. 

The changes of the year warn us not to hope for immoiiality. 

I pray you all, 4o not let the danger he increased hy the 
fatigue and hunger of the soldiers. 

Take care my son has the money to-day. 

He hade them choose whether they would have peace, or war. 

That is an old maxim, that friends should desire the same thing. 

The senate passed a decree that the consuls must see the 
commonwealth took no harm. 

Fahius forhade his soldiers to leave the camp. 

I only beg this of you, accept from me this joy which 
I bring you *, and believe that I saw your son lately alive and 

He said they should go at once, and not exaspeitite* the 
wrath of the conqueror by remaining. 

The answer of the oracle was, that they should entrust their 
lives and property to their wooden walls. 

Cassar commanded his men to refresh themselves before the 

I advise you, learners, to love your teachers not less than 
your studies. 

The senate decreed that the ambassadors of Jugurtha ^should 
depart from Italy in the next ten days. 

Jugurtha by forced marches outstripped Metellus, and 
exhorted the townspeople to defend their walls. 

I charge you, do not allow the enemy to retire unpunished. 

With a downcast countenance and suppliant voice, he 
begged the conscript fathers not to believe any thing about 
him hastily *. 

In great perils the senate used to decree that the consuls 
should take care* the state received no harm. 

> "Exorare, ^ Axperare. 

» Dative. ' • Temere, 

* Sospes. * Itake care^do operam. 

Pi. IL cA. 7.] SPEECHES, ^ 53 

Catiline gave-orders that Statilias and Gabinius, with a 
large band, should set fire to twelve convenient places in the 
city ^ so that in the commotion access would become easier 
to the consul and to others for whom assassination" was 
arranged. Cethegus should lay-siege-to • the door of Cicero, 
and attack him by force, and one (should attack) one man (and 
one another) ; the sons of families, of whom the greater part 
were of the nobility, should slay their parents ; and, every 
thing being smitten at once with death and conflagration, they 
should break-away to Catiline. 

Tarquin informed the Yeientes that he was seeking to 
recover his kingdom, and wished to punish his ungrateM 
fellow-citizens: they should bring aid (he said), and help 
him, they should go also to avenge ^^ their ancient wrongs, 
their legions so often cut-to-pieces, their territory taken away. 

60, teU the Romans that thus the gods will (it), my city 
Rome must be the capital of the world ; they must practise, 
then, the art of war ; they must know, and hand the same 
down to their posterity^ that no human resources can withstand 
the Roman arms. 



Sometimes the exact words of a speaker are reported ; thus, 
instead of saying — 

He cried out that he was a Roman citizen, 
we may have — 

He cried out, " I am a Roman citizen." 
The same form of expression is allowed in Latin ; thus, instead 
of saying — 

7 Say, Of the city. *• TTltwn. Supine after a verb of 

" InsidicB, motion. 

• Obsidere, 

64 SPEECHES. [1% II. ck. ^. 

Clamavit se civem esse Bomanom, 
wo may have^ — 

Clamavit, '' civis Romanas sum." 

It is clear that ^^civis Romanus sum** in the latter sentence 
is a direct statement, although it stands as object (of kindred 
moaning) to the verb cried out. 

We may observe that in Latin the indirect form is generally 

Speeches very often appear in an indirect form even in 
English, as will be seen by referring to almost any newspaper ; 
and it will be observed that, although an indirect speech 
roi)roBent8 the exact substance of the speaker's remarks, it does 
not represent his exact words. 

It is a very useful exercise to change a speech or report into 
an indirect form. This may be done by making it the object of 
some such verb as he said, or he says. 

Rules to guide the beginner in this would only encumber 
him ; the practical command of language which he possesses 
will be found amply sufficient for the pm*pose ; he has only to 
imagine himself relating a story, and to conunence with the 
words he says^ or he said, and he will have no difficulty, in 
making the required alterations. 

It will generally be found safest to transform the whole 
speech, before commencing to analyze it. 

Speeches generally consist of statements, questions, and 
commands, mingled together ; and care must be taken to dis- 
criminate between these different forms of sentences, when they 
are turned into Latin. 

Two examples are transformed to serve as models. 

Example of a Speech in " Oratio Recta** 

Diogenes was wont to argue thus, " How much do I sur- 
pass the King of the Persians in my life and fortune : nothing 
is wanting to me, to him nothing will ever be sufficient ; I do 
not desire pleasures with which he can never be satisfied, and 
my pleasures he can in no way attain." 

Ft. IL ch, 7.] 







How mach 









was wont to argue 

is wanting 
f will ever be sufflO 
\ cient J 

do not desire 
can never 
can attain 




the King of the I fin my life ant, 


fortune : 

my pleasures 

to me, 
to him; 

with which, 
in no way. 

Diogenes disputare solebat, " quanto regem Persarum ego vit& fbrtun&que 
snpero ; mihi nihil deest, ill! nihil satis unquam erit « ego voluptates non 
desidero qnibus nunquam satiari ille potest, meas is conseqoi nullo modo 
potest." ' 

The same Speech transformed into " Oratio ObliquaJ* 

Diogenes was wont to argue how much he surpassed the King 
of the Persians in his life and fortune : to himself nothing was 
wanting, to the other nothing would ever be sufficient ; he did not 
desire pleasures with which the other could never he satisfied^ and 
his pleasures the King could in no way attain. 




How much 





the other 
the ^ng 

was wont to argue 

was wanting 
f would ever he "1 
\ suffidewt j 
did not desire 

{could never he 
could attain 


fthe King of the 
\ Persians 


his (pleasures) 


,. (thus). 

in his life and 


to himself, 
to the others 

with which, 
in no wag. 

Diogenes disputare solebat, quanto regem Persarum vitB. fortun&que 
superaret; sibi nihil deesse, illi nihil satis unquam fore; se voluptates 
non desiderare, quihus nunquam satiari iUe posset, suae eum consequi 
nullo modo posse. 



[/v. //. ch, 7. 

Oratio Recta. 

•Do you hope that they are likely to be faithful to you, whom 
you have won over to yourself by money ? You must know 
that affection is not bought by gold, but by virtues. 






do you hope 


thetf are likely to he 
faithful to yoUi whom 
yon have toon over 
to yourself by money, 
rejection is not bought 
V by gold, but by 
L virtues. 

Sperasne eos tibi fiddes esse futuros, quos pecuiii&« tibi oonciliaveris ? 
ficito amorem non auro emi, sed virbutibus. 

The substantival clauses have not been analyzed, as it is 
supposed that this will no longer be required on every occasion. 

Oratio Obliqua. 

Did he hope that they were likely to be faithful to him, 
whom he had won over to himself by money ; he must know 
that affection is not bought by gold, but by virtues. 





did he hope 

must know 

'they were likely to be faith- 
ful to him, whom he had 
won over to himself by 

(ejection is not bought by 
gold, but by virtues. 

An speraret eos sibi fideles esse futuros, quos pecuni& sibi conciliasset ? 
Sciret * amorem non auro emi, sed yirtutibus. 

It is also a very useful exercise to change an indirect speech 

* It may be observed tbat, in an indirect command, ut (but not ne) is 
always omitted, if tbe command be real, i. e. if it be sucb as would be 
expressed by tbe imperative moodin a direct sentence; or, in otber words, if 
it be intended to represent in an indirect form the exact words of the 


or report into the exact words used by the speaker. This id 
an exercise which will best be performed, as opportunity 
occurs, in a construing lesson ; or any of the examples given in 
this book on indirect sentences, whether statements, questions 
or commands, may be used for this purpose. 

Examples of Speeches to be transformed into " Oratio Ohliqaa,** 

He said, " A victory is begun soon enough, when provision 
has been made * that we be not conquered." 

" Italy has been subdued by us," they said, " and all the 
fortune of the war is in our hands." 

The legions murmured, " We are being deprived of the help • 
of our bravest men ; those veterans, victors in so many wars, 
are being drawn away as- it- were from the line-of-battle, after ' 
the enemy is in sight. 

The sentinels endeavoured* to excuse their fault by accusing 
their leader. "We were ordered to be silent" (said they) 
**lest we should disturb his rest, and thus, through omitting 
the watchword and challenges*, we fell asleep*." 

" You yourself," said they, " are certainly an old man, and 
sated both with prosperity and adversity, but what a name, 
what a position will you leave to your son Germanicus ? now 
they promise you wealth and safety, but, when Vespasian has 
entered- on the imperial-power, there will be no security to 
himself, or his friends, or even to the army, while you are 

" Let no one," said the consul, " sell bread in the camp, or 
any other baked food. Let not hucksters ' follow the army, 
LfCt no private soldier in the camp, or on the march ', have a 
slave or beast of burden." 

Marius thus charged us : " Do not court • any one except the 

1 Say, It h<u been provided. * Watchword and challenges, 

8 Abl. Signvm et voces. 

. ' Abl. abs. ^ Lalii in somnum, ' Xt>i8. 

* Imperf. ■ In agmine. • Colere, 


Roman people ; do not accept new alliances or new treaties ; 
there will be protection enough in our friendship." 
' In a few days Jugurtha sent messengers to Borne i/cith 
much gold and silver, and said to them, '' first satisfy mj old 
fViends with presents, and then acquire new ones." 

" What hope," I say, " is there of trust or agreement ? they 
wish to rule, you to be free ; they to do injustice, you to pre- 
vent it. Can peace or friendship exist for minds so diverse ?" 

"We are uncertain," they said, *f whether we be more 
straitly " pressed by famine or by sword." 

" Take care," said Cicero, " that by forbidding men to speak 
freely in the senate, you do not raise a voice even outside the 
senate house." 

"You must remain in the palace, and not go-out to the 
enraged soldiers. You should give room for the repentance 
of the badly-disposed and for the agreement -of the well-dis- 
posed. Crimes gain-strength by hasty-action ", good counsels 
by delay. Finally you will have the same facility for going 
out presently, if there be need; but your retreat, if you 
should repent" (having gone out) will be in the power of 

Many prodigies were reported in the city. " In the porch 
of the Capitol the reins of the chariot, on which Victory stood^ 
had been thrown-down: from the chapel of Juno had rushed 
forth a form greater than human: the statue of the divine 
Julius on the island of the river Tiber had been turned from 
the west to the east on a cloudless and tranquil day: an ox 
had spoken in Etruria : there had been strange births of 

Hating the unaccustomed labour of military-service, they 
began to demand peace. " It is an island," said they, " which 
we inhabit, and Germany and its mighty legions*' is far off; 
even countries which infantry and cavalry protect have 

10 Acrius, ^^IfyoushouldrepenifSipanUeat, 

"^^ Festinatio. * ^* Say, W^ht (vU) of le^iofu. 


been ravaged and plundered by the fleet : let us then remain 
quiet, and not provoke so terrible a foe." 

The Roman emperor, but now the lord of the human race, 
was going forth from the seat of his power. Passing among 
his soldiers, the very women of his family looking-on, he said, 
, ^^ I am yielding for the sake of peace and the commonwealth. 
Retain only a kindly remembrance of me :. pity my brother, my 
wife, and the harmless age of my children." 

" Nothing," they cried, " can withstand our valour. We 
must penetrate Caledonia, and discover at length, in our con- 
tinuous course of victory, the boundary of Britain." 

*' It is not expedient," said Regulus, " that the Carthaginian 
captives should be restored; they are young, and good officers ^^^ 
I am broken-down " with old age." 

" Conscript Fathers, Micipsa my father (when) dying charged 
me that I should strive to be as much ^* use ^' as possible to the 
Roman people, to receive " you into the place of my kindi*ed, you 
(into the place) of my connexions; if I did this, in your friend- 
ship (he said) I had an army, wealth, and defences for my king- 
dom. But while I was turning-over '*the commands of my parent, 
Jugurtha, the greatest- villain ^ of all the earth supports, des- 
pising '^ your sovereignty, drove (me) out from the kingdom and 
all my fortune, me, the grandson of Masinissa, an ally and 
friend to the Roman people." 

'' Tell Aulus that, although I have** himself and his army shut- 
in by &mine and sword, yet I am not unmindful of human 
vicissitudes ". If he will make a treaty with me, I will pass them 
all under the yoke in safety; in addition to this ^ he must depart 
from Numidia in ten days." 

When the disaster was announced, Otho consoled his brother's 

" 2>MCM. " Say, WUch (eommandt, ^c), 

1* Cowfeeiug. when I was turning over (a^itare), 
10 As much (u possible, qwm '^ Say, The most villainous, 

maximk, ^* Abl. abs. 

»7 Usui. Dat. ofcompL " Tenere. " Bes. 

IB Dueere, ^^ In addition to this, prtsterea. 

«0 EXAMPLES OF SPEECHES. [iV. //. ch, 7. 

son (saying), *' Will Yitellius be of so ruthless a temper, that 
he will not even grant me this favour for the preservation of his 
family** ? I deserve the clemency of the victor by my hastened 
departure, for I have cast away my latest'* chance for the 
state, not in the extremity of my despair *^, but while my army 
is demanding battle. Enough fame has been attained for my- 
self, enough nobility for my posterity. After the Julii, the 
Claudii, the Servii, I have been the first to bring the empire 
into a new family. Hold-on-to" your life then with courage 
unbroken *?, and never either entirely forget, or remember too 
(vividly), that Otho was your uncle." 

I will claim for myself no magnanimity or moderation; for 
indeed", there is no need to recount (one's) virtues'* in a com- 
parison with Otho ''. The vices in which alone he boasts have 
overturned the empire, even when he acted- the-part-of" the 
Emperor*s friend. Should he deserve the sovereignty by his 
beai'ing and gait, or by that ^ womanish adornment (of his) ? 
They are deceived, on whom luxury imposes by a show of libe- 
rality; such-as-he will know (how) to squander, will not know 
(how) to give. Already is he revolving in his mind debauches 
and revels, these he thinks the prize of sovereignty; and the 
enjoyment of them shall be his, the shame and dishonour 
ours: for no one has ever exercised in a worthy manner "^ the 
power obtained by crime. 

The assent of human kind declared Galba CsBsar, Gkdba with 
your consent (declared) me. To this day your good-faith and 
reputation has remained unsullied. Less than thirty fligitives and 
deserters have made-over the empire: do you admitthe precedent, 
and do you make the crime your-own " by remaining-quiet ? 

«» Say, For hiafamiUf preserved. the relation of virtues. Cf. Pfc. III. 

*• NoviaHmus. ch. viii. 

'' Say, In my extreme despair. as Say, Cf Otho. 

** Capescere. ** Agere. 

*• Animo erecto. 84 jg^g^ implying contempt. 

so Neque enim. s* Bonis artihus. 

>i Latin, There is {no) need hy 3^ Communis. 




In English, if we wish to describe two consecutive actions, 
ive sometimes use a past participle to describe the first of them, 
and a verb to describe the second: e. g. 

CsBsar, having conquered the Gauls, returned to Rome. 
Here having conquered is the past pai^ticiple, and returned is 
the verb. 

In Latin there is no past participle belonging to the active 
voice, except in the case of deponent verbs. 

If, however, it be required to translate a past participle into 
Iiatin, it may be done in one of two ways, which we will 
illustrate from the above example. This sentence will become 
in Latin, either — 

Caesar, when he had conquered the Gauls, returned to Rome, 
or, CaBsar, the Gauls having been conquered, returned to Rome. 

The former of these methods consists in using an adverbial 
clause, linked on to the principal sentence by the conjunction 
when, and calls for no explanation. 

The Latin will be — 

Caesar, 'quum Gallos vicisset, Romam rediit. 

The second method is an example of the ablatjve absolute, 
and is thus written — 

Caesar, Gallis victis, Romam rediit. 

Qallis victis is the ablative absolute ; so called because 
there is no word to govern it. 

The sentence may be analyzed as follows : either, 


CsBsar I returned to Borne, 

when (he) ' had conquered the Gbuls. 
CsBsar, quum Gbllos vicisset, Romam rediit. 


CflBsar returned 

J to Rome, 

I having conquered the Gauls. 
CtBsar, Gallis victis, Romam rediit. 


The most usual form of the ablative absolute is that given 
above, in which a past participle is put in the ablative case to 
agree with a noun ; but, instead of the past participle, we may 
have any other participle, or an adjective, or even another 
substantive. Thus, 

CoBsare venture may be translated Ccesar being about to come, 
or, nou) that Cceaar is coming, 

Te redeunte may be translated you returning, or, when you are 

Consule Manlio may be translated, Manliua being consul, or, 
in the consulship of Manlius. 

As the ablative absolute is of frequent occurrence in Latin 
to express the former of two consecutive actions, it may be as 
well to point out here the difference between the Latin, Greek, 
and English languages in this respect. 

In English we should say, finish your work and go, using two 

In Greek, having finished your work go, using a past active 
participle and a verb. 

In Latin, there being no past active participle, we should say 

When you have finished your work, go, 
or, Your work being finished, go. 

The latter being of course an ablative absolute. 

It must not be forgotten that deponent verbs are active 
in meaning, and hence also they possess an active past parti- 
ciple: e.g. 

Caesar, having set out from Gaul, and crossed the Rubicon, 
came to Rome. 

Here the verb to set out (proficiscor) is deponent, and thus 
the Latin becomes — 

Caesar a Gallia profectus, Rubicone trajecto, Romam venit. 

The verb trajicio is not deponent, and hence the use of an 
ablative absolute (Eubicone trajecto) is necessary. 


Examples on the Ablative Absolute. 

Having drawn their swords, they made a charge on the 

These things were done in the consulship of Marius* 

Having changed their design, the enemy hegan to pursue 
and harass our ti'oops. 

All things heing prepared for * their departure, they named 
a day on which they should all assemble on ^ the bank of the 

That day was March 26th, in the consulship of Lucius Piso 
and Aulus Gabinius. 

The enemy being routed, the cavalry would-not ' pursue. 

Then, the signal being given, the Carthaginians whom 
Hannibal had kept * drawn-up for this (purpose) * sprang up 
on all sides. 

Fallen is all hope and the fortune of our name, now that 
Hasdrubal is slain. 

Having set out from the camp, they marched twelve miles 
that night, with Aulus as their guide. ^ 

The rites having been duly performed, and the multitude 
called to council, he explained what he had done. 

Then the Augur, having transferred the trumpet into his 
left hand, and placed his right on the head of Numa, prayed 

It is necessary to throw-aside all the greatest virtues, if 
pleasure be-supreme *. 

Even a coward will fight, when all hope of safety is lost 

Having said this, he dismissed the ambassadors and pre- 
pared for war '. 

It is not expedient to desert the bank of the Rhine, now 
that nations so hostile are likely-to-break-in ^ 

1 Ad. • Say, Pleasure heinff-supreme 

• Apud. (dominare). 

8 Say, Were unwilling. ^ Say, Prepared war. 

* Sefinere. ^ Future participle. 
' For this purpose, ad hoc. 


Precepts and arts avail nothing, unless nature assist*. 

When this battle was reported beyond the Rhine, the Suevi, 
who had arrived at the banks of the river, began to return home. 

Caesar, having finished two very great wars in one sununer, 
led his army into winter-quarters. 

Having arranged matters, the king departed home. 

Throwing away all their baggage, they loaded themselves 
and their beasts-of-burden with water alone. 

Having marched all night, he halted. On the next (night) 
he did the same thing. 

Time and place being appointed, they came to the con- 

Jugurtha, perceiving the vanity and want-of-skill " of the 
legate, (proceeded) craftily ". to increase his infatuation "• 

Whilst they were turning-over these (matters), the good 
fortune of the commonwealth at length prevailed. 

Sisenna, fearing violence, left the island secretly and fled. 
♦ All the-most- worthless ", scorning their national religions, 
used to carry thither offerings. 

Peace being established throughout Italy, foreign cares 

And so, having pitched his camp, as I have said, before the 
walls of Jerusalem, Titus displayed his legions drawn-up (in 
order of battle). 

The Jews were drawn-up under the very walls, ready-to- 
venture farther, if their affairs were prosperous. 

Having bought the right of fortifying their city, they built 
walls in peace as-if for war. 

A night was chosen dark with clouds ; and carried-down by 
the stream, they entered the entrenchment, no one hindering 

Having cut the ropes of th6 tents, they slew the soldiers 
cooped-up " in their own dwellings. 

' Say, Unless natwre ctssistin^, ^^ Amentia, 

^^ Imperiiia. i> Say, Every most worthless {man), 

11 Say, Crctfty (subdoUu), " Coopertus, 

rt. II. ch, 9.] ADVERBIAL CLAUSES, 65 



Conjunctions are used to link together words or sen- 

Now conjunctions are ©f two sorts : 

1. Those which link together words merely, or sentences 
independent of one another and of equal grammatical value, 
such as and^ or, hut, &c. 

2. Those which link on clauses qualifying or extending the 
ncieaning of the principal sentence, such as when, in-order-thaU 
cdthougk, &c. 

Conjunctions of the former class are called co-ordinative, 
while those of the latter class are called suh-ordinative. 

The clauses linked on hj sub-ordinative conjunctions are 
called adverbial clauses, because they qualify the meaning of 
parts of the principal sentence like adverbs. 

Although it has been thought right to point out this 
distinction here, it will not be found necessary to compel 
attention to it while it continues to present any difficulty. 

Practically all conjunctions may be regarded as linking on 
fresh sentences, and each sentence so linked on may be 
analyzed separately. 

The conjunction must be written in the column on the 
extreme left reserved for this pui'pose, and the only difficulty 
will be in determining whether the verb is to be in the indica- 
tive or subjunctive mood. This ¥rill be learnt by i-eferring to 
the lists of conjunctions in knj grammar. 

The place of the conjunction is generally first in its 
own clause, but some few, ike our English however , stand 




IPi, IL ch. 9. 










" .■t2 

'S tf 


^ 8 t- 

o 2: o 

^ .a « 

.a '^ ^ 

^ O ?Q 





















• ^4 







s 1.1 i 

•a c ,Q e 


i I 
^ i 

» .a .9 

I § s 










« j3 

bo o 

-s fa 



Ft. II. ch. lo.] ANAL YSIS OF ENGLISH. 67 

The adverbial clauses are, 

(i.) When these defeats^ one upon another^ were reported at 

(ii.) If I had known that. 
(iii.) So that it cannot be determined with the eye in which 

direction it is flowing. 
(iv.) Although virtue has nothing in itself for which it should 
he acquired. 



It will be found a useful exercise to analyze portions of 
English poetry occasionally, or of any Latin author which has 
been read by. the class. 

It will not generally be necessary to analyze short substantiyal 
clauses in full, when they occupy the place of subject or object 
in the sentence, but it will always be advisable to do so when 
they are in apposition to the subject or object : e. g. 
Of all the wonders that I yet have seen, 
This seems to me most strange, that men should fear. 

Here the clause that men should fear is in apposition to this, 
the subject of the verb appearSy and accordingly should be 
analyzed separately. 

If, however, the oratio obliqua runs to any length, it will be 
advisable to analyze it separately in any case. 

Adjectival and adverbial dauses should always be analyzed 
by themselves. 

Two examples are added to> serve as models. 

Example of English Poetry Analyzed. 

1 On what foundation stands the warrior's pride. 
How just his hopes, let Swedish Charles decide ; 

F 2 


A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, 

•No dangers daunt him, and no labours tire ; 
5 O'er love, o'er fear, extends his wide domain, 

Unconquer'd lord of pleasure, and of pain ; 

No joys to him pacific sceptres yield, 

War sounds the trump, he rushes to the field ; 

Behold surrounding kings their powers combine, 
10 And one capitulate, and one resign ; 

Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain. 

" Think nothing gain'd," he cries, " till nought remain. 

On Moscow's walls till Gothic standards fly. 

And all be mine beneath the Polar sky." 
15 The march begins in military state. 

And nations on his eye suspended wait ; 
' Stem famine guards the solitary coast. 

And winter barricades the realms of frost ; 

He comes, nor want nor cold, his course delay ; 
20 Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pultowa's day : 

The vanquish'd hero leaves his broken bands. 

And shows his miseries in foreign lands ; 

Condemn'd a needy suppliant to wait. 

While ladies interpose, and slaves debate. 
25 But did not Chance at length her error mend ? 
' Did no subverted empire mark his end ? 

Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound ? 

Or hostile millions press him to the ground ? 
' His fall was destined to a barren strand, 
30 A petty fortress, and a dubious hand ; 

He left the name, at which the world grew pale. 

To point a moral, or adorn a tale.' 

From, " The Vanity of Human Wishes,^^ — ^Dr. Johnson. 

Pt. n. ch, lo.] 



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pRiusQUAM satis certa consilia essent, repens alia nunciatur I 
clades: quattuor millia equitum' missa ad collegam a Servilio 
consule in Umhria, quo post pugnam ad Trasymenum auditam 
avei-terant iter ^, ab Hannibale circumventa. Ejus rei fama varie 
homines affecit. Pars, occupatis majore segritudine animis, 5 
levem ex comparatione priorum duoere' recentem. equitum 
jacturam : pars non id, quod acciderat, per se sestimare *, sed, ut 
in affecto corpore quamvis levis causa magiSf quam valido graviar, 
sentiretuTj ita turn cegrce et affectcB civitati quodcunque adverai 
inciderity non rerum magnitudine, sed viribus extenuatis^ quce nihil, ^^ 
quod aggravaretj pati possent, cBStimandum esse*, Itaque ad re- 
medium jam diu neque desideratum nee adhibitum, dictatorem 
dicendum, civitas confugit ; et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno 
dici posse yidebatur, nee per occupatam armis Punicis Italiam 
facile erat out nuncium out lift eras mitti, nee dictatorem populus 15 
creare poterat, quod nunquam ante eam diem factum erat, pro- 
dictatorem populus creavit Q. Fabium Maximum, et magistrum 
equitum M. Minucium Bufum. Hisque negotium ab senatu 
datum ^ ut muros turresque urbisfirmarent, et prcesidia disponerent, 
quibus locis videretur^ pontesque rescinderent Jluminum. ^0 

LiVY, lib, xxii. 8. 

I This relative daiue is not indi- esse, being linked together bj the 

rect; it is merely as it were a note oonjanction 9ed. The constmction 

added by the author, and thos the at this point is by no means obvious; 

rerb aeerteraiU is indicative and id might also perhaps be regarded as 

not sabjnnctive. the subject of a verb itstimandum 

3 Dmeere, tutimare, infinitives etse understod. 

used predicatively in narration in* * The following clauses, forming 

stead of finite verbs. an indirect command, are tnaipposi. 

* The object of the yerb tuUmaret tion to negotium. 

is composite, the two partly id and They may, however, be regarded as 

vt in affecto fv • . . . mgHmamdmm idvertnaL 




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It is reported that Homer was blind. 

He has sent-back hither the monej, that it maj be paid to 
Saurea for the asses. 

He says he brings money for the slave, but that he does not 
know him, the master himself, however, he knows well. 

A painter could not describe his figure more truly. 

Is this studying filial-afiection, to detract from a mother^s 
authority ? 

He Tnll prefer to die miserably, rather than not perform 
what he has promised. 

It seemed to them more reverent to believe concerning the 
acts of the gods, than to understand. 

Wherever the occasion demanded (it) a garrison was planted. 

Whilst these things were going-on^, Lucius Sulla, the 
quaestor, came into the camp with a great force-of-cavalry '. 

Neither valour nor arms sufficiently protected us, because 
the enemy were more in number, and scattered around on-all- 

On the third day active scouts showed themselves on-all-sides, 
and by this circumstance the foe was known to-be-at-hand. 

When Hannibal was devastating the plains of Italy, he left 
the estate of Fabius untouched. 

This affair seems to me to have been the cause of hurrying- 
on the crime. 

In our consul were many good qualities both of mind and 
body, but avarice choked them all*. 

There is nothing more important to me than the authority 
of the senate. 

When danger was-near, pride and envy fell-behind *. 

1 iS^eri, 8 Say, AU which, Sfo. 

s JEqvUatu9, ^ FoH esse. 


Not without cause then has Epicurus ventured to saj that 
a wise man is always in the midst of very many good things, 
because he is always in the midst of pleasures. 

To this Cicero only answered : That it was not the 
custom of the Roman people to accept conditions from an 
armed foe. 

There is no pomp in their funerals', they only take care to 
burn the bodies of their illustrious men with particular woods. 

The Germans deliberate on peace and war during their 
banquets : they deliberate while they cannot feign", and decide 
when they cannot err. 

It is well known that no cities are inhabited by the German 
nations, but that we have taught them to receive money and 

It is sw;eet to me to act-wildly^ when I have got-back my 

Ashes are earned back into the face of him who scatters 

The army is most brave in danger which before the danger 
is most orderly*. 

Some things a soldier ought to-be-ignorant-of, as well as* to 

As senators (spring) fvoxn. you, so from senators spring 

Men inhabit that globe, which is called the earth. 

Within the temple were no traces of a god ; they found an 
tfinpty shrine. 

Fortune was present, even when skill failed. 

Then said Maharbal : You know, Hannibal, (how) to conquer, 
to use your victory you do-not-know. 

Many things at once incited Otho, luxury burdensome even 
to a prince, poverty scarcely to-be-borne by a private-person, 
wrath against Galba, and envy towards Piso. 

Those who have ceased to fear will begin to hate. 

* Genitive * (Quietus. 

' lingere, ^ Fw^e. * As well as, tarn — quam. 


He is 80 blind that he cannot see a mountain. 

You will more easily repress talents and industry than you 
will recall them. 

In Britain plants grow quickly, but ripen slowly. 

The cause of either circumstance is the same, the humiditj 
of the earth and sky. 

The Romans obtained both gold and silver in Britain. 

Their courage came back to the Romans, and, secure of their 
safety, they began to fight for victory. 

Frequently during those days he was accused in-his-absence 
before the emperor, and in-his-absence ^^ acquitted. 

The cause of his peril was not any crime, or the complaint 
of any one injured, but his military renown, and a prince 
hostile to virtue. 

He was comely rather than tall", there was nothing to 
inspire awe " in his countenance, the grace of his expression 
was-eminent". You would readily believe him a good man, 
and wiUingly, a great man. 

Let us not beat him, lest he be angry. 

I cannot believe that so great an army has surrendered 
without a blow. 

His march was not indolent, and corrupted with luxury ; he 
wore an iron breast-plate, and went on-foot** before the stan- 
dards, rough, unkempt, and unlike his reputation. 

Sedition arose in the camp, because they were not led (to 
action) all-together ". 

Do you dare to say that a province is more important than 
the city and the safety of the empire ? 

The brave and energetic cling to hope even against 
fortune, cowards and sluggards hurry-on through fear to 

He ordered all letters remarkable for zeal towards himself, 
or abuse against Yitellius, to be destroyed. 

^^ 8&J, Absent. " S&j, There was notMnff of fear. 

^^ Say, More comely rather than ^s Superesse, 

taUer. " Pedeeter. » Univerai. 


If there be a choice of masters, it is more honourable to put- 
up-with the emperors of Rome than with the women of the 

My respect for Vespasian is of-long-standing^*, and,wheD he 
was a private-individual, we were called friends. 

Our ancestors wished rather to imitate the good than to envy 

In this way you would have received many more benefits, 
than you would have suffered wrongs up-to this time. 

A few, to whom justice and equity " were dearer than wealth, 
thought that the death of Hiempsal ought to-be-avenged ^^. 

In the beginning the GsBtuli and Libyes inhabited Africa, 
rough men, and uncultured, who had venison" for food and the 
pasture of the ground, like cattle ^. 

Catiline believed that through these (women) he could 
rouse the city slaves, bum the town, and either attach their 
husbands to himself, or slay them. 

Avarice overthrows honour and probity ; it teaches (us) 
instead of these to neglect the gods, and to hold all things venal. 

Some few, to whom life was left, shut up in darkness passed 
a life, in*^ grief and lamentation, more burdensome than death. 

The Pythian Apollo gave forth a response that Sparta would 
perish by nothing else but avarice. 

He has determined to give me a wife to-day : was it not 
right that I should have known before ? 

When that day which he had appointed with the ambas- 
sadors arrived, and they returned to him, he said he could not 
allow to any one a road through the province, and if they at- 
tempted to use violence **, he would prevent them. 

When, through his scouts, Csesar was informed '' that the 

^* Yetus, ^^ Say, To whom venison locufood, 

17 JEquitm et honum, &c., <m to cattle. 

*8 Say, Was to-be-avenged (ge- ^^ Cum. 

mndive). ^^ To use violence, facere vim. 

'• Caroferina. Often ferinaonlj, ^* I am informed, certior f actus 

caro being understood. sum. 


enemy had now led three parts of their forces across the 
stream, but 'the other part was left on-this-side the river, 
having set out from the camp with three legions, he came upon 
that division which had not yet crossed. 

The ^qui, elated with victory, threatened they would 
besiege. Rome itself. 

Herdonius said that he had taken-up the cause of all the 
most wretched '^ that he might restore to their country those 
banished by injustice, and take^away the heavy yoke from 

When Metellus arrived in Africa, the army was given over 
to him by the proconsul Spurius Albinus, lazy, unwarlike, 
enduring neither of danger nor toil, more forward" with 
tongue than hand, a plunderer from its allies, and itself a prey 
to the foe. 

The prsefects of the king came up prepared to give pro- 
visions, to carry supplies, and to do every thing they were 

Let us collect vessels of every sort, chiefly'* wooden ones. 

Jugurtha called out in Latin that our men were fighting in 
vain ; Marius had been slain a little before by his hand : at- 
the-same-time he showed a sword smeared with gore, which he 
had covered-with-blood*^ in the fight. 

The king, surrounded by cavalry, while he endeavoured to 
encourage his own men, and to hold-fast a victory already 
obtained, every one being slain on his right and on his left, 
broke away alive among the weapons of his foes. 

The Helvetii after his death, endeavoured to do that which 
they had determined. 

There were in-all" two roads by which they could issue from 
their home. 

And so our men, on the signal being given**, made a charge 
upon the enemy. 

** Say, Of eoery very wretched '• FUrcique, 

(man). '' Cruewtare. 

2* Promptue, 28 Qmnino, 39 j^^L abs. 


The Grermans, according-to'^ their custom, formed colmmi, 
and received the shock of the swords. 

The Trojans, having disemharked, gain-possession-of the 
wished-for sand. 

That one day's delaj is helieved with-sufficient-reason'^ to 
have heen the salvation of the repuhlic. 

Thou sleepest much/ and drinkest often ; and hoth these 
things are hurtful to the hodj. 

Behove that every day has dawned upon you the last. 

It is an instinct " implanted in mortals to look with distempered 
vision on the recent good fortune of others, and to demand 
a limit of prosperity from none more than (those), whom they 
have seen on a level with themselves. 

In that contest, the amphitheatre, a very heautiful work, 
situated without the walls, was hurnt down; whether fired hy 
the assailants while they hurled torches and missile fire on 
the hesieged, or by the besieged while they defended themselves 
in like manner. 

The populace of-the-town ^', prone to suspicion, believed that 
food for the fire had been brought by men from the neighbour- 
ing colonies, through envy and rivalry, because no pile in Italy 
was so capacious. « 

By whatever accident it happened, it was held of light 
account** as long as deeper-disasters ** were feared: when 
security was restored, they grieved (for it), as though they could 
have sufiered no more weighty (misfortune) . 

The day on which they fought *" at Bedriacum, the inhabitants 
relate that a bird of strange appearance settled in a frequented 
place, near Regium Lepidum, and was not frightened nor driven 
away by the concourse of men or of birds hovering round (it), 
until Otho killed himself. Then it hurried-away *' out of 

w jep. ' M 7„ few*. 

*i Satit, •* Atrociwra* 

•* Natwra, •• Pugntttum wt. 

" Municipdlif. ^7 Stkj,Wai*naichedawajf(rap6r9). 

80 MISCELLA^EOUS EXAMPLES. [/V. //. ch, 12. 

Not far from thence are plains, which formerly fertile, and 
adorned with great cities, have heen consumed, they say, by 
lightning : and the traces (of this) remain. The very soil 
scorched in appearance has lost its productive power. Near that 
lake all things, whether produced spontaneously, or sown by 
the hand, be they scanty herbage, or flowers, as soon as they 
have developed into their usual form, fade away as it were to 

The doors of the temple were suddenly thrown open, and a 
voice greater than human was heard (saying), " The gods are 
departing." At the same time there was a mighty stir of 
(persons) departing. 

Fear being removed by the absence of the legate, the Britons 
began to discuss among themselves the evils of slavery, and to 
compare their wrongs. 

Moved ^ by these (considerations), with Boadicea a woman 
of royal lineage as their leader'*, they all-at-once took-up arms, 
and attacking^ the soldiers scattered among the forts, they 
drove-out the garrisons, and invaded the colony itself as the 
seat of their bondage. 

If Paulinus had not come up in haste, when he learnt the 
disturbance of the province, Britain would have been lost^ 

Beginning with himself** and his own, he first restrained his 
own household, (a thing) which to most men is not less difficult 
than governing a province. 

Hitherto your generals have so contended with that king^ 
that they have brought-back the trophies of victory, not victory. 

When Caesar was alive he was hated, when dead all men 
mourned his fate. 

I am of those^ who admire the ancients. I do not however 
despise the wits ** of our own times. 

Go, said Paulus, warn the fathers to fortify the city, before 
Hannibal arrives victorious. 

»« Instinctut, *' Say, I^om Uamlf, 

M Abl. abs. " 2?a? iu. 

*o Consectati. "•' Interna, 


Taught by former disasters, the dictator Fabius changed the 
system of the war. 

We have lost Tarentum, said Hannibal, by the same art by 
-which we took it. 

The name of his disease^ is avarice. 

It is clear that the power of kindly-feeling is great, (that) 
of fear is feeble. 

To Themistocles it seemed preferable ** to be able to forget 
what he was unwilling to remember, than to remember what he 
had once heard or seen. 

Many have doubted whether Sulla were more trave or 

Bomilcar was put on his defence " rather according to right 
and justice ^^ than the law of nations, (being) a follower of one 
who had come to Rome on the public faith. 

Let him pay the penalty of his undutiful-conduct ** towards 
our father, the death of my brother, and all my woes. 

She first taught our ancestors how illustrious it was to rule 
foreign nations. 

Democritus, having lost his eyes, could not distinguish black 
and white ^; but good and evil, justice and injustice, honour and 
dishonour he could distinguish. 

At a fixed time, all the nations of the same blood come 
together to a wood hallowed by the auguries of their fathers 
and longstanding fear : and having slain a man in public, they 
celebrate their horrid rites. 

Their whole life consists in hunting-expeditions, and in the 
studies of the art of war. 

He preferred this should take place through the action of 
the Roman people*^; if there was no hope of that, he would tiy 
the Volsci, and the ^qui, and every extremity. 

** Dative.. **• Impietas. 

^^ Optahilms. ^^ Saj^ Black {things) and white 

*• To he put on one^s defence — {things)ygood(fhing8)had(fhing8)Sfc. 

reus fieri. ^^ Say, The Boman people being 

^7 JEx aquo honoque, the author, abl. abs. 


82 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. [Pt. //. ch, 12. 

When they judged they were ready for this", they set-fire- 
to all their towns in number about twelve, their villages about 
forty, and the rest of their private buildings"; they burnt up all 
their corn except what they were about to carry with them, in 
order that, all hope of return being taken away, they might be 
(the) more ready to undergo every danger. 

There they placed the women, who implored those going 
forth to battle not to give them up into slavery to the Romans. 

Five consecutive days Csssar led his forces out of the camp, 
and had the * line-of-battle drawn-up, that, if Ariovistus wished 
to engage with him, the power might not be wanting. 

He wished rather to adorn Italy than his own house, although 
now that Italy is adorned^, that very house' seems to me 
adorned the more **. 

Yarro, not having consulted his colleague, gave the signal for 
battle, and led his troops in order across the river, while Paullus 
followed, because he was better able not to approve than not to 
assist the design. 

When they come to battle, it is a disgrace to tHe chief to be 
surpassed in valour, a disgrace for his following not to equal 
the valour of their chief. 

This is an ancient opinion, judges, and it is confirmed from the 
most ancient literature and the monuments of the Greeks, *' that 
the whole Island of Italy is consecrated to Ceres and Libera." 

One proclaimed that the camp was already taken, another 
that the barbarians having destroyed the emperor and his 
army were come as conquerors. 

They carry their wounds to their wives and mothers, nor 
do thede fear to count or examine the blows. 

They say Plato came into Italy that he might become- 
acquainted-with the Pythagoreans. 

They considered a space-of-two-years was enough for 
them to finish their walls. 

*i Ad hoc, *' ^jtltalylMmngheenctdorned. 

*3 Say, Their remaining private ^^ Say, More adorned, omatior. 



I speak of a learned and accomplished man to whom thought 
is Ufe ". 

This, however, seemed a shame, that even the Roman camp 
should now be scared by undisciplined auxiliaries. 

At length, when silence was obtained, he asked, " Wbere 
was Claudius Asellus, and since he disputed in words with 
him concerning valour, why did he not decide by the sword, 
and by-his-defeat " suiTender the 'spolia opima,' or by-his- 
victory *" take them himself ? " 

It is ridiculous to say nothing with-respect-to *' those things 
we have, and to inquire-for those which we cannot have, to be 
silent about the recollection of men, to clamour-for the record 
of documents. 

Such was the habit of their minds, that few ventured-on the 
crime, more wished it, and all permitted it. 

They offered him money and favour, and whatever place of 
retirement he should choose. 

These were men whom the memory of Nero inflamed, and 
regret for their former licence. 

These philosophers consider those things alone good, which 
are honourable, and those alone bad, which are base : power, 
noble-birth, and other things external to the mind** they 
reckon neither among the good nor the bad. 

It is an idle story that the Helusii and Osciani have ** tl^ 
features and countenances of men, the bodies and limbs of 
wild beasts. 

Mithridates turned^ all the rest of the time, not to forgetful- 
ness of the old war, but to preparation for a new (one). 

The book, which I have brought with me, is yours. 

Those who are weary of life often fear to die. 

I will not leave till you return home. 

This man is a coward: he stayed at home the whole month 
while his fellow-citizens were fighting. 

B^ Say, To think is to live, *^ Say, Without (extra) the mind, 

^* By his defeat — 5y his victory, ^^ Oerere, 

victus — victor, *' Ad, •* Conferre, 

Q 2 


The charge was so ill-timed, that not a man escaped. 

Death, naturally*^ equal to all, is distinguished among pos- 
terity by oblivion or renown. 

Many men in one state cannot lose their fortunes without** 
drawing more persons into the calamity with them. 

Mithridates in his flight*" left in Pontus a very great quan- 
tity ^ of silver and gold, and ail things most fair, both those 
which he had received from his ancestors, and those which 
he had himself carried-ofF from the whole of Asia in the former 
war**, and brought together into his kingdom. 

By that delay time** was given to the Yitellianists for 
retiring'^ into the vineyards obstructed by the interlacing of 
the twigs. 

Ordered by Cains Cadsar to set-up his image in. the temple, 
the Jews rather took-up arms. , 

Then not only the senate and equites, but also the common 
people, deplored that these two, of all men the basest in their 
shamelessness, their cowardice, and luxury, (should have been) 
chosen as-it-were by- fate" for the destruction of the empire. 

One of the ambassadors, of well-known eloquence, but con- 
cealing his skill in speaking by an apt hesitation, and on that 
account the more powerful, pacified the minds of the soldiery. 

The Gauls and Britons have the same audacity in challeng- 
ing perils, and when (they) have come-upon them, the same 
cowardice in shirking"* (them). 

I, nominated prince by you, cannot call myself a private per- 
son, nor while another is reigning (can I call myself) a prince. 

This man has waged more wars than others have read-of. 

Italy is a witness of his glory, for that (great) conqueror 
Lucius Sulla himself has confessed it was freed by his valour. 

Sicily is a witness, for, encircled on all sides by many 

•I BxiMiurA, hrovghi,^c.,carried'Off(]^Krt.tigne' 

•2 Say, 80-ihat {at)theydo not,Sfe, ing with which things) from, ^c. 

*8 Say, J7y%. ** Spatium, 

«4 Yig^ «7 Genitive gerund. 

6* Say, ffhich he had himself ^* FcUaliter, *> Detreetare. 


dangers, he disentangled it, not by the terror of a war, but bj 
the promptitude of his strategy '^ 

Gaul is a witness, for through it a way was opened by him 
for our legions into Spain. 

What others call crimes this man calls cures, while with 
false names, severity instead of savagery, thrift instead of 
avarice, he terms your punishments and disgrace discipline. 

In other circumstances, when the calamity comes, then the 
loss is sustained '\ but in finance, not only the incidence '' of 
evil, but even the very fear of it brings calamity. 

Having tried adversity, I find that not even prosperity has 
more danger. 

I think that these four things ought to be present in a very 
great general, knowledge of military matters, valour, authority, 
and good-fortune. 

Of what mind think you are they who pay us taxes, or 
those who farm^' and collect ^^ them, when two kings are close 
at hand with very great forces, when a single raid of cavalry 
can carry off in a short time the revenue of the whole year. 

There. was also another strong" and serious opinion which 
had pervaded the minds of the barbarian nations, that our 
army had been brought into their coasts for the sake of 
plundering their most wealthy shrines. 

When he reached Cuphites, the army, wearied with pro- 
longed labour, besought him with tears to put an end to the 
war. They showed him their grey hairs, their wounds, their 
bodies wasted'* by age and toil, so that the monarch, touched 
with compassion, ordered a camp to be made with unusual 
magnificence, in order to alarm the enemy, and leave a monu- 
ment of his greatness in the East. 

There appeared to Ptolemy during the night, when he was 
adding walls and temples to Alexandria, a youth of singulai* 

70 CotuiUum. 74 Exigere. 

71 Accipere, 76 Vehemens, 
73 Adventus. 7« Vacuus, 
7* Exercere. 


grace, and beauty more than human, who admonished him to 
send the most trusty of his friends into Pontus, and fetch 
thence his efflgj. 

These ravagers of the world, after land has failed them, are 
searching the sea; if their enemy is wealthy, they are avari- 
cious, if poor, ambitious. They only of all men covet wealth 
and poverty with equal avidity. To steal, to slaughter, to 
ravage, (this they call) empire, and when they make a solitude, 
they call it peace. 

Many whose custom it is to estimate illustrious men by their 
following^', having seen and gazed-on Agricola, called*in- 
question " his renown. 

To prepare for war, and at the same time to spare the 
treasury, to compel to service those whom you are unwilling 
to offend, to look-after every thing at home and abroad, and 
to do this among (men) envious (of you), opposing (you) and 
factious, is more difficalt, Quirites, than is imagined **. 

They say I am boorish**, and of uncultured manners, because 
I adorn the banquet with too little grace ^^ and do not esteem 
any buffoon or cook of more value than my steward, but it 
pleases me to confess this. 

On the night which was next before the day appointed for 
the conference, the Moor is said to have turned over many 
things in his mind. 

I did not despise your authority, my son, but I wished to 
try whether you knew that you were consuL 

The frame of Catiline was enduring of hunger, of cold, and 
of waking; his mind was bold, crafty, versatile"; of any 
thing he pleased a pretender and dissembler, (he was) covetous 
of another's property, prodigal of his own. 

After he determined" to go to Tarentum, having chosen 
10,000 foot and horse whom he thought most fit for the expe* 

77 AmhUio. ^^ Parum seUh. 

7^ Quarere, *' Vftriut, 

'• Say, Than opinion. " Say, It pleased (lihet), 

^^ Sordidue. 


dition for their swiffcneBs and the lightness of their armour, in 
the fourth watch of the night he moved the standards. 

When Carthage was destroyed, P. Afiricanus adorned the 
cities of the Sicilians with the fairest trophies and monuments^ 
in order that he might place most tokens of victory among 
those, who, he considered, were especially delighted with the 
success of the Roman people. 

All said ** that men had heen chosen hy Punic treachery to 
seek-renewal-of ^ an old peace, which they themselves had for- 
gotten.'' And Marcus Livius added, ''that Caius Servilius 
the consul, who was near at hand, should be sent^for, that the 
peace might be treated-of in his presence." 

Although, Scipio said, not only the trucej but also the law 
of nations had been broken, nevertheless he would do nothing 
against them unworthy either of the Roman people or of his 
own character. 

Unbroken rest had given as much vigour to the one, as 
dangers and toil (had given) hardihood to the other. 

In the meantime Galba in his ignorance ^, engrossed with the 
sacred-rites, was importuning** the gods of an empire now 
belonging-to-another, when a rumour was carried (to him), 
that some senator or other*' was being carried-off** into the 
camp, (and) soon that it was Otho, who was being carried-oif. 

Nero will always be regretted by all the worst men ; you 
and I must take** care that he be not regretted also by the 

Horror comes over my mind as often as I remember that 
deadly entry, and this the only victory of Galba, when in the 
eyes of the city he ordered the prisoners to be decimated, whon^ 
on their entreaty*^ he had admitted to quarter *\ 

•4 Bepelere. ** Say, It ii to be provided hy 

>< Say, Ignorant. thee amd me. 

M Faiiffare. ** Say, Whom entreating {de^ 

>7 Some or other, ineertue qtAe. preeantee). 

«• Sapere. *» Infldem. 


It is a peculiarity of the human race to hate those whom 
you have injured. 

If any one thinks that a smaller re turn •* of glory is received 
from Greek verses than from Latin, he greatly errs ; hecause, 
Greek'* is read in almost every nation, Latin'" is confined in 
its own somewhat** narrow limits. 

Of Titus Vinius it is doubted whether instant fear took- 
away"' his voice, or whether he shou ted-out that it was not the 
command of Otho that he should be slain. 

Some persons, acquainted with the design •• of the emperor, 
came to ask Agricola whether he would go into his province. 

Such cheapness of provisions followed suddenly after the 
greatest want and deamess of bread-stuff, through the expec- 
tation and fame of one man, as a prolonged peace would 
scarcely have been able to bring-about after the greatest 
productiveness of the land. 

Take care lest, as it has been most honourable for your 
ancestors to hand down to you the glory of so great a power, 
so it be most disgraceful for you not to be able to protect and 
keep that which you have received. 

It is difficult to say in what odium we are with •' foreign 
nations, on account of the wrongs and vices of those whom we 
have sent to them during these years. 

The vanquished must die*^ those- who-surrender** must die. 
This alone is-of-importance, whether we pour out our latest 
breath with^^ mockery and insults, or with valour. 

When disaster ^°^ was followed ^^ by disaster, and every year 
was marked by deaths and defeats, Agricola was called-upon ^"' 
by the voice of the people as a leader, all men comparing his 
vigour, firmness, and mind skilled in war, with the inability and 
cowardice of the rest. 

»2 Mtictus. 97 Apud. 

•' Neuter plural. ^^ Gerundive. 

»4 San^. »» Dediti, 

95 Conaumere 100 Per, 

^^ Say, Skilled in the thoughts ^^^ Damna, pi. 
(cogitationea), los Cowtinuare, *<** Poaeere, 


Agricola was born June 13th, in the third consulship of 
Gains Caesar; he died in his fifty-seventh year, August 23rd, 
in the consulship of Collega and Priscus. 

Happy were yx)u, Agricola, not only in the splendour of 
your life, but also in the seasonableness of your death. But 
for me and for your daughter, besides our sorrow for a parent ^®* 
snatched-away, it augments our grief that ^*** it did not fall to 
lis to sit by your bedside ^°*, to nurse you as-you-failed "^ to 
take-our-fill "^^ of your look and embrace. 

This is our sorrow, this our wound ; you were lost to us four 
years before, under the circumstances^^* of so long an absence. 

All things without doubt, best of parents, were-there-in- 
abundance*" for your honour, while your most loving wife sat-by 
(you), but you were laid-to-rest"^ with the fewer tears, and with 
their latest light your eyes regretted something (still absent). 

If there is any place for the shades of the good, if, as it pleases 
the wise (to suppose), great souls are not extinguished with 
their bodies, may you rest in peace, and call us your family 
from weak regret and womanish lamentations to the contem- 
plation of your virtues, which it is neither right to mourn nor 
bewail "*. May we leather grace you by our admiration than 
by short-lived "' praises, and if nature permits "*, by our emu- 
lation. This is true honour, this the filial duty"' of every 
one most-nearly-related "• to you. 

This also would I charge your daughter and wife, so to 
revere the memory of their father, so (to revere the memory) 
of their husband, that they recall"' with themselves all his 
deeds and sayings, and cherish"^ rather his reputation and the 
image of his mmd, than of his body. 

^04 Objective genitive. ii' Say, {Thoit) which should he 

1®^ Quod, followed by indicative. mourned, ^e, (ace. & inf.) : mowm^ 

^^^ Assidere valetuditU. bewail, lugere, plangere, 

*"7 Say, Failing. ^13 Temporalis. 

"^^ Satiari, ^i< Suppeditare. 

io« Conditione. ^i* Pietas. 

110 Superesse. ^^^ Conjunctissimus* 

11* Componere, ii' Mevolvere, "^ AmplecU. 





The questions howy where^ when^ which are oflen answered hj 
adverbs, may also be answered by the prepositions tn, untkyfrom^ 
hy^ thrxmghy 4rc.y with a nonn» 
Thus we may either say, 

Write very careJuUt/y 
or, Write with great care ; 
in the first example, using the adverb very carejully ; and in 
the second, a preposition and its case, wiik great care. 
So we may either say, 

Stand herey 
or, Stand tn this place. 
In such cases as the above, the ablative is used in Latin, 
generally without a preposition. 

This ablatire will indicate either the cause, instrument, 
manner, price, dimension, material, condition, time, or 
place*; and, like an adverb, may qualify either verbs or 

* The ablatives of time and place, which answer the qaestions wkem, wkere^ 
will be oomndered sepanttely* 


The following sentenoes will exemplify these constnictions: 
(i.) The had hate to fm for fear of punishment, 
(ii.) He ravaged the conntiy with fire and sword. 
(iii.) One man re-estahlished our fortune hj delaying, 
(iv.) With a great sum obtained I this freedom, 
(y.) My brother was bom three years before me. 
(vi.) Swallows build nests of clay, 
(vii.) I will return home on this condition. 
In (i.) the words for fear of punishment indicate the cause 
of the hating. 

In (ii.) the words with fire and sword indicate the instru- 
ment, or perhaps the manner, of the ravaging. 

In (iii.) the words by delaying indicate the manner of the 

In (iv.) the words with a great sum indicate the manner, 
or perhaps the price, of the obtaining. 

In (v.) the words three years indicate the length of time by 
which my brother is older than me. This use of the ablative 
will be treated of under the head of dimensions. 

In (vi.) the words of clay denote the material with which 
the building is done. 

In (vii.) the words on this condition indicate the condition 
of my returning. 

These sentences become in Latin : 
(i.) Oderunt peccare mali formidine pcence, 
(ii.) Agros vastavit igne etferro, 
(iii.) Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem. 
(iv.) Magnd ego pecunid banc libertatem consecutus sum. 
(v.) Frater meus ante me natus est tribus annis» 
(vi.) Hirundines lima nidos sedificant. 
(vii.) Hdc conditione domum redibo. 
Three points require especial notice. 

1. If the ablative denote a living creature, it will require the 
preposition a or ab before it in Latin : e. g. 

He was slain by a lion, 
A leone interfectus est. 

98 EXAMPLES ON THE ABLA TIVE, \Pt. Ill, ch. 1. 


He was slain hy a javelin, 
Jaculo interfectus est. 
The fonner is called an ablative of the agent (i. e. of the 
doer) : the latter is clearly an ablative of the instrument. 

2. The cause is more usually translated by a preposition, 
such as per (through), oh or propter {on account of), than by an 
ablative case alone. Thus, 

He abdicated the supreme power for love of ease, 
might be translated by, 
Per -J • 

Oh yamorem otii abdicavit se imperio. 

Propter J 
as well as by, 

Amore otii abdicavit se imperio. 

3. The ablative of the manner almost always has an adjec- 
tive with it, except, perhaps, in some common phrases such as 
vi {hy force), fraude {hy fraud), jure {hy right), &c. 

This ablative may also be accompanied by the preposition 
cum {with). Thus, 

He drove out the foe with great slaughter, 
may be translated. 

Magna cum strage hostem expulit. 

Examples on the Ahlative of Cause, Manner, ^c. 

Germany abounds in streams and rivers. 
The mind is endued with perpetual motion* 
Ireland is less by a half than Britain. 
Let us cultivate friendship by kindness. 
In this way alone will you escape punishment. 
No one can see himself, but by a mirror. 
Happiness cannot be bought with money. 
After the labour of the banquet, they refreshed themselves 
with sleep. 

They saved themselves by a timely flight. 


He is a foot taller than his grandfather. 

That victory was gained by much bloodshed. 

He was pursued by a mad dog, and died of the fright. 

These things you have done neither through fear, nor 
affection, but from a love of servitude. 

Metals are known by their sound. 

Birds reveal their nature by their song. 

Germany heard the sound of war in all her sky. 

Often the fruit of a whole year is lost by a single rumour of 
danger, or fear of war. 

That speech is now out-of-date \ refuted much more by 
circumstances than by words. 

He alone was feared by the enemy, (and) besides (him) no 
one (else). 

Labour and pleasure are joined together" by a sort-of 
companionship '. 

The Suevi for the most part * live on milk and flesh. 

Coins are not reckoned by number, but by weight. 

We measure great men by their virtue, not by their 

Vicious princes are-harmful more by their example, than by 
their crimes. 

In my opinion Menippus was at that time the most eloquent 
man in the whole (of) Asia. 

Virgilius Romanus was remarkable for the uprightness of 
his character ^ for the elegance of his genius, and for the 
variety of his works. 

The following winter was consumed in the most salutary 

Deserted by all his friends, he died an exile. 

The trees they cut^own, and filled the wells with stones. 

These are men not in reality, but in name. 

1 To he out of date, Ohsolevisse. * Latin, Maximam partem. 

* Inter se, * Mores. 

3 Say, By a certain {qtUdam) 



She was killed by her &ther, and buried bj her husband. 

Galba was driven hither and thither' bj the Yarying 
pressure ^ of the fluctuating crowd. 

Many authors have rehited the events of that time with 
equal eloquence and freedom. 

Nero squandered fifteen million six hundred and twenty- 
five thousand sesterces in gifts. 

All things thence-forward were done by command of the 

Piso fulfilled the thirty-first year of his age with better 
reputation than fortune. 

He was more fortunate in another's ' reign, than in his own. 

Thetis will woo thee with all her waves. 

Cities, once famous, have been burnt by fire from heaven. 

Agricola was carried headlong to fame at-once * by his own 
virtues and • by the vices of others. 

He did not, however, challenge renown and death bj an 
empty boast of fi*eedom. 

The haughty spirit of Catiline was troubled continually " by 
his want of private means ^\ and the consciousness of his 

Every one measures dangers by his own fear. 

Through his unparalleled *■ liberality in private, and his very 
great donations in public, CsBsar owed a large sum of monej. 

The help of the gods is not gained by vows and womanish 

Jugurth^ was both valiant in battle, and wise in council. 

He proclaimed it on the public faith. 

I think the conspiracy of Catiline memorable from the novelty 
of the crime and of the dangers. 

The drop hollows the stone, not by force, but by often 

^ Latin, Hue illut, 

7 ImpuUus, 

8 Alienus, agreeiog with reiffn, 
* Simul, , . . nmul. 

10 Indies, 

^1 Private meane, reefamiUarie, 

n Egregius, 


The state, oppressed bj slaveiy, paid the penalty of its foolish 

By yoar valour jou have made the Romans the most friendly 
of our friends to us. 

We can efiect this either by figtvour or largess. 

The nation was oppressed by military-service and poverty. 

Driven by necessity, he determined to contend in arms. 

The body remarkable for its eyes, its hair, and ferocity of 
mien, was brought to Rome. 

In a state hovering ^' between licence and libei;]ky, even little 
matters are carried on in great excitement ^\ 

Between Cremona and Verona is situated a village, now 
noted for two Roman disasters. 

The Temple at Jerusalem was fortified in the manner of a 

Cerialis also drew up his fleet, unequal in number, more power- 
ful in the skill of its pilots and the size of the vessels. 

In that court the one road to power was to glut the insatiable 
appetite of the emperor by prodigal banquets, extravagance^^, 
and debauchery. 

He is said to have delayed his brother's good-fortune through 

Some of the soldiers slew themselves at the funeral-pyre, 
not through fear, but in emulation of his glory, and aflection 

My father was noted for the study of eloquence and philo- 
sophy, and by these virtues he deserved the anger of Caius 

He spent the year of his tribuneship in rest and ease. 

The mountaineers were cut-to-pieces, and scattered, at the 
first charge. 

Enraged at this contest, the soldiery turned their arms 
against the town of Athens. 

" Incertut, " Sumpfut. 

" Jfo^w, plur. " Genitive (objective). 


In Hjrcania the people keep " dogs at the public cost, to 
destroy their dead. 

By silence and endurance, finally by prayers and tears, they 
sought-for pardon. 

They carried Valens surrounded by the eagles and standards 
to the tribunal. 

The body was burnt by his friends with the usual honour.* 

The first day was spent in an assault, rather than in the 
tactics** of a veteran army. 

Cnaeus Pompeius entered the Temple at Jerusalem by the 
right of conquest. 

Examples on the Ablative, 
{More Difficult.) 

In my opinion, said Cicero, Curio was the most eloquent man 
in those times. 

The maidens whose brothers had been slain by the Horatii 
were weeping. 

He has dared to say that I surrounded my head with ivy. 

The ships which we have taken are full of slaves. 

Let us surround our brows with garlands, and so go to the 

The book which he was reading, about old age, was written 
by a celebrated orator, Cicero. 

I will buy wine, meat, and bread, that we may not all die of 

Broken-down with toil and grief, he retired to Baiae, and 
there died. 

He alone can be called happy, who is content with his lot. 

. This book which I hold in my hand is yours, my son. 

He replied that the soldiers were selected by him, not 

»? Mere. » Artea. 


Piso, now terrified by the murmur of the increasing " tumult, 
and the voices resounding into the city, had followed Galba 
into the forum. 

Sempronius Densus, a centurion of the praetorian cohort, 
running-to-meet*® the armed (crowd) with a drawn dagger, 
upbraided their crime, and now with his hand, now with his 
voice, by turning the murderers on himself, gave Piso, though 
wounded, a means-of-escape. 

Vitellius was consuming the fortune of the empire in idle 
luxury and profuse banquets, drunken in the middle of the 
day, and obese with gluttony. 

Military efficiency " is kept up, my comrades, by obeying, 
rather than by inquiring-into ** the designs of your leader. 

His mind was overwhelmed with fear lest he should render 
the victor less placable to his wife and children by an obstinate 

The bad, through hatred of their own condition *', wish that 
every thing should be changed. 

I will show you a plan, if ye wish to be men, by which ye 
may escape such great evils as these **. 

He was ordered to proclaim it on the public faith. 

When Sulla, in our recollection, ordered Damasippus and 
others of-that-sort, who had fattened** on the misfortune 
of the state, to be strangled, who did not praise his act ? 

Men complain unjustly of their nature, that it is weak and of 
short life, and is ordered rather by chance than by virtue. 

The town of Zama, situated in the plain, is fortified rather by 
art than nature. 

When Metellus saw the town fortified by labour and by its 
position, he surrounded the walls with a rampavt and ditch. 

More were slain in that battle than in all previous *• (ones),, 
for their flight was hindered by sleepiness and unwonted fear. 

" Crehescens, 23 ^£8, pi. 

20 Occurrere, (governing dative) 24 gay, These ao great emU^ 

3' Mee militares, ** Creacere, 

32 Sciaeitere, (to try to know). ^^ Superior. 



The witness was asked whether he had been beaten by the 

Many prodigies, which in barbarous ages are observed even 
in peace, are now only heard-of in a universal panic. 

Scarcely had the day risen ", (when) the walls were ftiU of 
combatants, and the plains shining with men and arms. 

The German cohorts advanced with a fierce chant, brandish- 
ing their shields above their shoulders, with bodies exposed in 
their national fashion. 

The enemy with more measured and surer aim •• hurl-down 
their javelins from-above. 

The legionaries, protected by mantlets and hurdles, undermine 
the wall and erect a mound. 

The praetorians roll down tv ith a tremendous crash millstones 
disposed for that very purpose*. 

At length Csecina, in shame at the attack ^ so rashly begun, 
crossed the Padus, and determined to seek Cremona. 

When Mithridates had recovered his kingdom, a thing which '^ 
happened to him beyond his hope, he was not content with it. 

Those who sui'vived the battle were concealed by the 
swamps, and perished there through the severity of the winter, 
and their wounds. 

Their altars are honoured " by prayers and pure fire; and they 
do not get-wet though in the open (air). 

To narrate fabulous (stories), and to cloud"* the mind of 
one's readers with fictions, I would believe far from the dignity 
of the work undertaken. 

It was discussed ^ in secret whether Piso also should set-out. 

The two consuls of that year perished, the one by disease, 
the other by the sword ". 

37 Say, The day having scarcely ^^ Genitive. 

rUen, (abl. aba.). *> A thing which, id quod, 

3^ A more measured and surer ^^ Adolere, 

aim, Uhratus magis et eertus ictus, ** Obteetare. 

^> Jbr thai very purpose, ad id *^ Agitare, 

ipsum, >< Ferrum, 

PL III. ch, 2.] PLACE, 99 

Happy art thou, ClireiDeSy to have a son endued with such a 

Asia is so fruits and fertile that it easily surpasses all lands 
in the variety of its fruits, the productiveness of its fields, the 
size of its pastures, and in the multitude of those things which 
are exported. 

For-a-long-time there was a great dispute whether military 
science was advanced *• by force of body or by fortitude of 

Empire is easily retained by the arts of which it is bom '^ 
in the beginning. 

It was not my design to wear-away my leisure in careless- 
ness and sloth, to pass my life in cultivating my land or hunt- 

Caesar was considered great for his benefactions and munifi- 
cence, Cato for the integrity of his life. The former became 
renowned for his gentleness and sympathy, sternness added to 
the worth of the latter ". Caesar acquired fame by giving, re- 
lieving, and pardoning, Cato by giving no largess ". In the one 
there was refuge for the wretched, in the other destruction for 
the bad. The affability of the former was praised, of the latter 
(it was) the firmness. 



Thb question vih&re may be answered by an ablative case 
indicating the place: e. g. 

My father died in that house. 
Here the words in that house indicate the place where my 
father died. 

3< Say, Advanced, (active). '* Say, Added worth to the latter, 

^f Partus, ^^Togtoenolargeit'^NihiUlargiri. 

H 2 

100 PLACE, \Pi, III, ck. 2. 

The Latin will be, 

Pater mihi ed domo mortaus est. 
It is more usual, however, to employ a preposition. Thus, 

He lived three years in Britain^ 
would be translated, 

Tres annos egit in Britannia, 
When the question where is answered by the name of a town, 
the preposition is usually omitted, and the town put in the 
ablative. Thus, 

at Philippi becomes Philippis, 
at Carthage „ Carthagine. 
But if the town is first declension singular, a case ending in 
CB is used ; and if it be second declension singular, a case 
ending in t is used. Thus, 

at Borne becomes Bomce. 
at Miletus „ Mileti. 
This apparent anomaly springs from the former existence of 
a special case to indicate position ; this is sometimes referred 
to as the locative case. 

Although it will be found useful to practise the rules given 
above, yet it must be observed that a preposition is often used 
even with the name of a town. Thus, 

Apud Athena^ is quite as correct as Athenis, 
While dealing with towns, it may be remarked that the pre- 
position which might be expected to govern them is very 
often omitted. Thus, 

Caesar returned to Borne, 
may be translated, 

Csesar rediit Bomam, 
And this is to be preferred to, 

Csesar rediit ad Bomam. 
So also, 

Demaratus ^edfrom Corinth, 
may be translated, 

Demaratus fugit Corintho. 
There are certain words in common use, such as domtis 


(Jiome\ and rus {the country)^ which follow the same rule as 

It will be well to commit the following list to memory. 

Home (i. e, to home) . . . domum, 

Intd 1 , 

yr > tfie country/ . . . rus. 

From home .... domo. 

At home ..... domi. 

In the country . . . ruri. 

On service (t.c. military service) militice. 

At the war .... belli. 

On the ground . . . humi. 

Examples on Plate, and Nam^s of Towns. 

There was a terrible sight in the open plains. 

Marius left Rome and fled to Africa. 

I see an old man returning from the country. 

Cadmus scattered teeth on the ground, seeds of mortals \ 

They allow no images in their towns, much-less in their 

Venturing * nothing farther, he returned safe home. 

One died at Rome, the other at Cumse. 

I write home as often as I can*. 

Some are at Rome, some at Athens, others at Carthage ; we 
will go to Corinth. 

These pursuits were cultivated in Italy, and here at Rome 
they were not neglected. 

Hannibal, expelled from Carthage, came an exile to Ephesus 
to king Antiochus. 

Solon came from Athens to Miletus to hear Thales. 

At home and on service the Romans always practised virtu«. 

There is poverty at home, "debt abroad. 

Cato hurried home from the senate. 

1 Say, Mortal eeedi, ' As often as possible, qvam 

2 Ausus. sapissimi. 

102 EXAMPLES ON PLACE. \Pt. III. ck. 2. 

Wait-for me at Naples. 

Horace studied philosophj at Athens. 

Examples on Place and Names of Towns. 
{More Difficult) 

When many men had lost much property in Asia, we know 
that at Rome payment was stopped ^ (and) credit fell-to-the- 
ground '. 

Then Jugurtha, Contrary to royal etiquette *, in as pitiM a 
plight ' as possible ' came to Rome with Cassius. 

Stay with my wife at Puteoli, I go to salute Caesar at Rome. 

We say that you set out from Rome before the time. 

Very few remained in Italy when Csesar had set oat for 

On a certain day the people-of-Yacca' invited the centurions 
and military tribunes to their houses, and slew them all at the 

All whom disgrace or crime had driven-away from home 
came-in-a-stream ^® to Rome, as into a sink. 

I did not think there were booksellers at Lyons. 

Metellus was informed at Cirta by letters from Rome that the 
province (of) Numidia had been given to Marius. 

Having finished my business in that place, I returned to 

Jugnrtha learnt at Zama that Marius had been sent ont of 
the line-of-march to Sicca with a few cohorts, to get com ^K 

In Athens at that time the state was administered " at home 
and at war by the judgment of the few. 

Two brothers were sent from Carthage, whose " name was 
PhilaBnus "• 

^ Say, Pojfment (toltitio) having * M pUifkl as pomble, jwasi 

been Hopped (impedire), ^c, miserrimms. 

* Coneidere. • PaocenMi. *• Coi^uen. 

* Deeu*. 11 Drumentaium, snpine. 

' CuUw. 13 Tractors. » Dative. 

PL III. cA, 3.] T/M£, 103 

Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, defeated Publius Scipio 
at the river Ticinus, Sempronius at Trebia, and Flaminius at 
the Lake Trasjmenus. 

The Moors, having obtained every thing, set out, three of 
them for Borne with Rufus ; the other two returned to the 


The authority of the senate has been given-up to a very 
bitter foe; your sovereignty has been betrayed; the state has 
been corrupted at home and abroad. 



The question when may be answered by an ablative case 
indicating the time of an occurrence : e. g. 

In that year Carthage was blotted out. 

Eo anno deleta est Carthago. 
Here the question when (indicating the time) is answered 
by the ablative eo anno^ in that year* 

Examples on Time *. 

In the month of April ^ all things grow-green. 

At that time I was not bom. 

On the very day of his departure an eagle flew-before (him) 
with gentle motion ', (as) a guide of the road. 

On the next day doors were shut as in a captured city. 

In the beginning of the summer Agricola lost his little son, 
bom the year before. 

* Examples on ** dnration of time" months are adjectives: thus, a Roman 

will be found in the chapter treat- would not say the month of April, 

ing of dimensions (Pt. II. ch. vi.). but the Aprilian month* 

1 In Latin the names of the * Meatus* 

104 EXAMPLES ON TIME. IPt. III. ch. 3. 

The farmer cannot work in the winter. 

Birds seek their nests at sunset. 

Behold ! in the morning they were all corpses. 

In a short time I will explain every thing. 

The nightingale is not heard by day. 

In the middle of the night* Catiline set out with a few 00m- 
panions for the camp of Manlius *. 

The king attacked the town as on the day before •. 

Marius triumphed with great glory on the first of January. 

At that time he was the hope of the Roman people. 

All the Carthaginian ships were in a short time taken or 

In the midst of the night were seen torches, and a glow in 
the sky •. 

In a short time the report of so great a crime was noised- 
abroad through all Africa. 

On the next day Metellus set out for Rome. 

Cnaeus Pompeius prepared (his work) at the end of winter ', 
took-it-in-hand ® at the beginning of spring', and finished it 
in the middle of the summer ^ 

At the beginning of night ' close your house. 

No mortal *® is wise at all hours. 

A man can become illustrious both in peace and war. 

At that time Catiline had great hopes^^ of standing for the 
consulship ". 

The king fled from the town by night with his children and 
a great portion of his wealth. 

3 Say, In the middle night, ^ Susdpere. 

* Say, Into the Manlian camp. ' Say, In thefirat night, 

* Superior, *° Say, No one of mortals. 

* Say, Of the shy. " Singular. 

y Say, In the extreme winter — in 12 j stand for the consulship, eon- 

the entering spring — in the middle sulatum peto. 

Pt III, ch. 3.] EXAMPLES ON TIME. 105 

Examples on Time. 
{More Difficult,) . 

One hour in the morning is- worth more than two in the evening* 

I do not myself think he will I'eturn in the spring. 

We will sleep at home to-night, and return to Baiae in the 

He and I were horn in the same year, in the consulship of 
Manlius ". 

On the fifteenth of January, the soothsayer announced to 
Galba as-he-was-sacrificing before the temple of Apollo, en- 
trails of- ill-omen, threatening plots, and a foe in-his- family". 

The holidays will begin December 17, and end January 23* 

He says that he himself went round the camp at night to 
inspect the sentinels every hour. 

The famine is so severe, that no one has eaten for three days. 

He died the tenth year after the foundation of the city ". 

In the morning he is confined to his bed *•, at the second hour 
he calls for his sandals, he walks three miles, and exercises not 
less his mind than his body. 

In a short time tDatiline had filled-up his legions, though at 
the beginning he had not had more than two thousand. 

In a severe winter he reached Suthul, where the king's 
treasures were, by forced marches. 

At the dead of night ** Jugurtha suddenly " surrounded the 
camp of Aulus with a crowd of his'Numidians. 

At the time when *• the Carthaginians ruled most-of Africa, 
the Cyrenians also were great and opulent. 

Our family initiated " its friendship with the Roman people 
in the Carthaginian war, at which time honour, rather than 
profit, was to-be-sought. 

He promised to open the gate of the city, at whatever time 
of the night he gave the signal. 

1' Say, ManliuB being consul. ^7 Intempestd node. 

'* Domesticus. *8 j)g improviso. 

" Say, From the city founded. ^^ ^fij. At which time. 

i« Say, By his bed. 20 Instituere. 

106 ACC. AND ABL. OF RESPECT. [Ft. Iff. ck 4. 



After a general statement, such as he was wounded^ the 
part affected is sometimes particularly defined : e. g. 

He was wounded in the hand. 

Here the words in the hand define the part affected by the 

In Latin the noun defining the part affected may be put 
either in the accusative, or the ablative. 

Thus the above sentence would become — 

__ , ( manum, 

Vulneratus est S 


This construction is called the accusative or ablative of 


Examples on the Accusative and Ablative of Respect,, 

Agesilaus was lame in either foot. 

He trembles in his knees. 

Tou are my senior in age. 

I am not more ill in body, than in mind. 

ThQ women of the Germans are barefooted and barearmed* 

I was wounded in that battle in my hand* 

With bare head and feet ^ they rushed forth from the temple. 

Barefooted came the beggar maid before the king» 

Germany heard the sound of arms in all her sky. 

Achilles was wounded by an arrow in the right heel. 

You are prior in age and wisdom, speak first. 

A certain man diseased in his hand, at the instance of a 
priest' prayed that he might be trodden on by the foot of 

1 Say, Sare their head and feet, * Say, Aprieet leing the €mAor. 

{head and feet, aoc. of respect). 

iV. ///. cJk. $.] ABL, AND GEN, OF QUALITY. 107 

King Bocchus ruled all the Moors, in other ' (respects) 
except his name, unknown to the Boman people. 

He influenced the young by his authority, the old by his 
entreaties; calm in countenance, fearless in his speech, he 
checked the unseasonable tears of his (attendants). 



Let us consider the sentences — 

(i.) He was a man -! 7^ r « ^*^^ disposition. 

( of ') 
(ii. ) Mars was represented as a god < >* i ^ terrible countenance^ 

In these examples the nouns man, god, are severally qualified 
or described by the words which immediately follow them. * 

Just as in English we may either say of a mild disposition, 
or unth a mild disposition, so in Latin we may use either the 
genitive, or ablative, in such a place as this. 

This construction is called the genitive, or ablative, of 
quality with an epithet *. 

It will be obseived that the epithet is necessary to com- 
plete the sense. Thus, we cannot say, 

». He was a man of a disposition. 
But we can say. 

He was a man of a mild disposition. 
Mild is of course the epithet 

These sentences become in Latin, 

f\ \ TT^TY,^ orof i ^^^^ ingeniL | 
(1.) ilomo erat < .... . > 
^ ^ i^mitt tngento ) 

/•• \ -I?- 1 X Tiir C terribilis aspectus ) _ 
(u.) Fingebatur Mars J ^,^.j .^^. ^,^^^^^ j deus. 

* Caterat ace. * An epithet is an a^jectiye denoting quality* 

108 EXAMPLES ON QUALITY, {^Pt, IIL ch. 5. 

If the DX>UQ is described as being of some undefined value^ 
the genitive construction is used, as in English, and the 
substantive valu^ (pretii) is omitted altogether: e. g. 

Of little worth are arms abroad, unless there is counsel at home. 

Parvi sunt foris arma, nisi est consilium domi. 

Here parvi means of littie worthy and agrees with pretii 
which has been omitted. 

Examples on Quality with Epithet. 

They had seen a boar of vast bulk. 

In Jerusalem stood a temple of vast wealths 

The number of the besieged of every age was six hundred 

The image of the goddess was nbt of human aspects 

Cerberus is represented as a dog with three heads. 

We made a journey of seventy miles in two days. 

Agesilaus was of low stature and slight frame. 

The Jordan flows into a lake of great circuit, with the 
appearance of the sea. 

The consul was a man of singular weight and virtue. 

A brave man counts death of little (moment). 

A snake of marvellous size harassed the Roman army at 
the river Brag. 

He dug a ditch of sixty feet (wide). 

Be of good courage S I am of great readiness * in ' speaking. 

Tarquin had a brother, a young man of mild disposition. 

Africa is said to produce serpents of twenty cubits. 

Of what * innocency ought emperors to be, of what modera- 
tion in all matters, of what honour, of what graciousness, of 
what a disposition, of what humanity ? 

> Animus, ^ Ad. 

3 AlacrUas. ^ Quantus. 


Pt. Ill, ch. 5.] EXAMPLES ON QUALITY. 109 

Exampies on Quality. 
{More Difficult) 

Which of us was of so boorieh * and rude a mind as not to 
be disturbed • lately by the death of Roscius ? 

Titus was a man of such good-nature ^ and liberality that he 
could deny no one any thing. 

Here is a man of the greatest authority and respect-for-an- 
oath ^y Lucius Lucullus, and he * says, not that he thinks, but 
that he knows, not that he has heard, but that he has seen. 

Piso in face and figure of the ancient type **, and in a fair 
estimation stem, was by those interpreting more unfavourably " 
considered somewhat gloomy ". 

The Romans, roused by wounds, seize their weapons, and 
rush along the roads, some few in their military equipment, 
most of them with their garments twisted round their arms, 
and swords drawn. 

It is of little moment " that you recover your taxes by a 
victory, (after) having lost the tax-collectors. 

Lucius Catiline, bom of noble family, was a man with great 
force of mind and body, but with a wicked and depraved 

Sempronia was a woman who had committed many acts of 
manly daring. 

My peril declares of what account he had made the words 
of your ambassadors. 

They see him (when) present of such moderation, of such 
gentleness and humanity, that those seem to be most happy 
among whom he tarries longest. 

Who are these who have taken-possession-of" the state? 

' A^esiu, *^ Deterius, 

^ Say, Who was not, ifo* See ^^ Somewhat gloomjf may be ex- 

Pt. III. ch, xix. pressed by the comparative. 

7 Facilitas. ^^ It is of little moment, parvi 

• BeUgio. refert, 

" And he, qu%» *® Mos. " Oceupare, 


most ' abandoned men, with bloody hands (and) incredible 
avarice, most dangerous ", and at the same time most arrogant. 

I esteem the word-of-honour of Cassius of not less value 
than that of the state ^\ 

Numidia fell " to Metellus, a stem man, a man, however, 
with an unsullied reputation. 

In this way the two chiefs were contending together", 
themselves (well) matched ", but with unequal advantages *. 

The commonweal is of more value to me than consulship or 

Consider whether acts or words are of more account. 



Let us consider the following sentences — 

(i.) Troy was besieged by the Greeks ten years, 
(ii.) The soldiers drew out a rampart eighty feet high. 
It will be observed that the dimensions ten yearSy eighty feei^ 
have the sign of no case before them. 

In Latin such dimensions, whether of time or length, are 
put in the accusative. 

Thus, the above sentences become, 
(i.) Decern annos Troja a Graecis oppugnabatur. 
(ii.) Milites aggerem altum pedes octoginta extruxerunt. 
It will be seen that the dimensions eighty feet qualify the 
adjective high like an adverb, and may in fact be treated as an 
ablative of manner. Thus (ii.) may be written — 

Milites aggerem altum pedibus octoginta extruxerunt. 
This is very rarely the case with dimensions of time. 
After a comparison, however, either by means of an adjective, 

IB Noeentissimi, ^" Say, Between themeelvee, 

" Say, Than the pvhlio foord of »» Par, 

honour (Mes), M Qpes. 
17 Svenire. 


or of an adverb, the ablative is to be preferred, whether the 
dimensions represent time or length: e. g. 

y. X r,,, . /*». r o,joot longer "| , 

(1.) This staff 18 1 ,^^ ^ ^J.^^^ I than yours. 

■ _ f three years longer "| 

(ii.) He lived < , , ., ^ at Rome than at Athens. 

^ ' \ longer by three years j 


(i.) Hie baculus longior estpede quam tuns. 

(ii.) Bomae diatius quam Athenis vixit tribus annis. 

In the Examples marked by an asterisk (*) the abhitive case most be used. 

Examples on Dimensions of Time and Length, 

The enemy fight with spears six feet long. 

He died three years old ^ 

The city, difficult-of-access * by its situation, was strengthened 
by a wall fifty feet high. 

They have been playing several hours, and are playing still. 

He has been absent now three days. 

I was distant from Rome three days* journey. 

* A few days after the whole army surrendered themselves. 

You cannot stir him a finger's breadth •. 

We have heard these reports now three years. 

Five consecutive days Caesar drew up his forces before the 

The river Nile overflows its banks the whole summer. 

The Romans were two thousand fewer than the Sabines. 

The temple of ^sculapius is five thousand paces distant 
from Epidaurus. 

The snow stood ten feet deep on the tops of the hills ^ 

Ariovistus halted three miles from Caesar's camp. 

Marius lived all his boyhood at Arpinum. 

They marched in company' that day and the next without fear. 

1 Natus. 3 Jrduus. « Say, On the highest hills, 

s Aftnget^ahreadth,transversum * Conjutteti, 



Agamemnon, together- with the whole of Greece, is said to 
have besieged one citj ten years. 

Examples on Dimensions of Time and Length. 

{More Difficult.) 

* Themistocles did the same thing that Coriolanus had done 
thirty years before. 

It has been written by Posidonius, that Panaetius lived thirty 
years after he had published his books " On Duties •." 

* He had a mother worn-out by old i^e, who, a few days 
before, anticipated by her timely death the destruction of her 

Having entered the shrine, Vespasian saw behind his back 
one of the Egyptian nobles named Basilides, whom he knew to be 
detained several days' journey from Alexandria. 

He asked the priests whether Basilides had entered the 
shrine; finally, having despatched some horsemen, he discovered 
that he was eighty miles off at that time. 

* Sex tins was the first of the plebs to be made ^ consul, three 
hundred and eighty-eight years after the foundation of the 
city \ 



There are certain verbs, such sBfungor (I perform), fruor (I 
enjoy\ utor (/ use\ vescor (/ eat), potior (/ get possession of), 
which govern their direct object, not in the accusative case, 
but in the ablative case. 

Potior governs either an ablative or a genitive. 

> Say, Concerning (de) Duties. * Say, After the eity founded. 

7 Say, JVho ioaa made, ^c. 

Ft. III. ch, 8.] " OPUS'' AND " USUSr 113 

Examples of Verbs governing an Ablative. 

Those states are most happy, which enjoy liberty. 

We will use our money, and enjoy life. 

The Trojans-gained possession-of the wished- for sand. 

I will make-use-of your kindness, since you listen-to * me so 
attentively in this new kind of speaking. 

He prepared to use treachery instead of arms. 

The Numidians generally feed-on milk and game *, and do 
not require salt or other incitements to gluttony. 

I will perform the part' either of a general or a soldier. 

Do we not already enjoy libesty of speech ? 

They use your allies as enemies, your enemies as allies. 

The sick cannot enjoy life. 

Metellus set-out for Thala in the hope of finishing the war, 
if he could-gain-possession-of that town. 

Night, and the booty of the camp, delayed the enemy, so 
that they did not use * their victory. 


" OPUS " AND " U8U8." 

The construction of opus {need) requires notice. In English 
we say — 

1 have need of your assistance. 
In Latin — 

Opus est mihi auxilio tuo, 
or. There is need to me bt/ your assistance. 
The construction of usus is the same, though it is not very 
often met with. 

1 Attendere. ' Vice. 

- Gfffme, Caro/m«a, literally fwW * Say, By which the leu (quo 

flesh. Caro is often nndentood. mimu) they used, Sfo, 


114 COMPARISON. [/v. ///. ck. 9. 

Examples on " Opus " and " Usus^ ** 

There is no need of bo muoh noise. 

We need little, we enjoy much. 

In such great peril there is need of action ' not of delibera- 
tion *. 

You have no need of yiolence in this case. 

There is no need of delay, when inaction is more damaging * 
than temerity. 

They have no tieed even of a wish. 

We need water more than food. 

So great a labour needs a long life. 

They have need of art, that they may conceal their base 
actions by their oratory. 



The word than after a comparative is translated into Latin in 
two ways, 

1. Literally, by the conjunction quatn. 

2. By the ablative case. 

This latter is called the ablative of comparison ; e. g. 

(i.) I am more able than you. 

(ii.) I will found a city greater than Carthage. 

Latin — 

/•x c . X. (quamtu. 

(1.) Scientior ^o sum S 

(U.) Urbem adificabo { ^^Zhaginm } "^""'^'^ 
If quam be used, the word linked on by it wiU of course be 
in the same case as the word to which it is compared. 

> Faeium'^contuUmn. < Say, J)amagei {noeere) more. 


Thus, ego and lUy urhem and Carthaginem^ are in the same 

It may be of assistance to observe that the word linked on 
by qtiam is in the same case as the preceding comparative. 

Thus, scientior and tu are in the same case, so also majonm 
and Carthaginem are in the same case. 

Examples on Comparison. 

An honourable death is better than a disgraceful life. 

Men are stronger than women. 

She was more beautiful than day. 

Summer is longer than winter. 

The remedies of human infirmity are naturaUy ' more tardy 
than the evils themselves. 

He is taller than his grandfather. 

What can be heavier than the carcase of an elephant ? 

Nothing is more base than slander. 

No apples are finer than mine. 

A civil war is more terrible than a foreign (war). 

No work can be more worthless than yours, no words more 
powerful than mine. 

The towns of Italy are more wealthy than (those) of Gaul. 

The walls of that town are stronger than the gates. 

Honesty is better than cunning. 

There never has been a queen more beloved than Victoria. 

What is stronger than a lion, what sweeter than honey ? 

It is better to lay-down our arms than to die of hunger. 

Hunger is more powerful than steel. 

I cannot catch those fish, they are more cunning than I. 

Ignorance of future evils is better than knowledge. 

A disgraceftil escape from death is worse than death itself. 

Nothing dries sooner than a tear. 

No one at Rome was richer than Crassus. 

1 Say, By naUare, 
I 2 

116 EXAMPLES ON COMPARISON, [Pt. Ill, ch. 9. 

You can do nothing more pleasing to me than this. 

I have raised a monmnent more lasting than bronze. 

The nature of serpents, itself destructive, is fired by thirst 
more than by any other thing. 

Our country ought to be dearer to us than ourselves. 

Have you ever seen any one more cowed and humble than 
Marcus Regulus since the death of Domitian ? 

In no place did the king delay longer than one day or one 

On the third night, before dawn, they arrived at a hilly 
spot, not more than two miles from Caspa. 

No alliance is better for thee than ours. 

I hold nothing dearer than your friendship. 

Examples on Comparison, 
{More Difficult,) 

Many men think cowardice more base than crime itself. 

You cannot hope that you will find an animal more faithful 
than the dog. 

Men who exercise themselves in arms are more ready ■ in 
dangers than others. 

They say that no kingdom is more powerful than ours. 

It is well known that there never has been a city more 
powerful than Rome. 

Nothing is more terrible than a mother who does not love 
her children. 

We believe that few men have been more virtuous than 

He went away with me to seek a happier country than ours. 

We, who reap, are richer than you, who sow. 

I know that you are older than I. 

If you do • this, you will be no better than the Africans. 

I, who work, am happier than you, who are idle. 

3 Promptus, 8 Fnture. 




In such sentences as — 

It is the nature of every man to err, 
the word indicating nature^ duty^ function^ token, &c., is ofleu 
omitted in Latin. Thus the ahove sentence would hecome — 

Cujusvis hominis est errare, 
where the word natura seems to he understood before cujusvis 

Examples on the Genitive with Duty, ^c, understood. 

Temerity is a mark of youth, prudence of old age. 

It is the duty of a child to obey its parents. 

It is the duty of a Christian to fear God alone. 

It is ours to command, yours to obey. 

It is the function of art to conceal art. 

It is the part of a prudent man to restrain the impulses of 
his benevolence. 

It is not the function of this book to relate the nature of the 
ocean and its tides. 

It is the duty of a Roman soldier to conquer or die. 

It is the nature of every man to err, but of none but a fool 
to persevere in error. 

Petulance is rather a mark of the young than of the old. 

Marcellus said it was neither of his right nor of his power. 

It seemed to him the part of a fool to care-for another 
man's affairs at his own risk. 

It is then the duty of your humanity to protect a great mul- 
titude of your fellow-citizens from calamity, of your wisdom to 
see that the calamity of many citizens cannot be separated from 
the common weal. 


Nothing is so much a mark of a narrow and little mind as 
loving^ wealth. 

This is the mark of a man more desirous of glory' than 

It is man's to he affected hj grief, to feel it, to hear up against' 
it, however, and to admit consolation ; not to have no need * of 



Adjectives which indicate an indefinite quantity, such as 
nimium {too much\ satis {enough)^ parum (too Itttle)^ &C., are 
generally used in the neiiter gender in Latin, followed by a 
genitive case. 

Thus instead of saying — 

He has too little knowledge^ 
in Latin we should say — 

He has too little of knowledge, 

Parum est ei * scienttce. 
This construction is known as the genitive of the thing 

Examples on the Oenitive of the Thing Measured. 

There is no com left in the city* 
You have more courage than skill. 
You cannot have too many friends. 

The faces of the soldiers were cast-down on the ground, and 
there was more sorrow than penitence. 
Do you bring any news ? 

» Cf. Pt. I. ch. xi. * 4 iron egere. 

« Cf. Pt. in. ch. xiL * Cf. Pt. in. ch. xvli. 

* Serittere. 


We are come to the extremity of famine. 
We have plenty of wine but too little bread. 
Is there any talent in me ? 
In this way much of the day had passed \ 
This matter has more joy than sorrow. 

Examples on the Genitive of the Thing Meemtred. 

(More Difficuit.) 

This, I think, is enough praise. 

I think there is too little spirit and perseverance in you. 

They gave him of the public land as much as twelve oxen 
could plough in one day. 

I have before experienced that there is too little faith (kept) 
with the wretched *. 

At Rome there is more danger than honour in innocence. 

The nobility, using' that victory according to their lust, 
gained themselves more fear than power. 

He gathered together from the fields as much as he could 
of domesticated* cattle. 

He ordered his soldiers to carry as much water as possible, 
and as little food. 

The plain was parched and void of fruit at that time, for it 
was the extreme (end) of the summer. 

And so there fell to the new emperor more anxiety from 
the evil habits of his soldiers, than assistance or hope of good* 
from their numbers *. 

1 Proeedere. * Dofiitte#»from domar$,to tame, 

' Say, To the wretched, * Say, Of good hope, 

* Z7ni#, past port. ' Copia. 





Lbt us consider the sentences — 

(i.) Now at this instant be mindful of coming old age, 
(ii.) He had a mind greedy of gain. 

We see that the adjectives mindful^ conscious^ would convey 
no meaning by themselves, but require a genitive case to help 
them out. 

This same construction is used in Latin. Thus the above 
sentences would become — 

(i.) VenturcB jam nunc memores estote senectce. 
(ii.) Mens ei cupida lucri. 
It will be observed that many of these adjectives have a 
kind of transitive force, and that the genitive stands in much 
the same position to them as the direct object does to the verb. 
Thus, whether we say — 

He desired instant death, 
or. He was desirous of instant death, 
the words instant death may be considered as the object of the 
words preceding them. 

When this is the case, the genitive is called the objective 

The same remarks apply to a genitive of this sort used 
after certain nouns, such as love, desire, memory, &c. 

Thus when we talk about love ofmone^, of money is clearly 
not a genitive qualifying the noun love, it is an objective 

This distinction is not easy to explain satisfactorily to 
beginners; it is a point rather relating to theory than pitMS- 
tice, and may with advantage be postponed. 

Examples on the Genitive Prolative and Objective, 
He is ever mindful of his word. 


The lust of military glory had entered his mind. 

Ye are impatient of heat and cold. 

Careless of things nearest us, we pursue things far off. 

His native town is not unmindful of his name. 

There was a slave from Pontus, skilled in song and harp. 

The earth jnll receive thee (as) its lord, powerful over 
fruits and seasons. 

The people, destitute of all public anxiety through their 
vast multitude, began to feel the evils of war. 

Ye have always been eager for glory and greedy of praise 
beyond other nations. 

All the best men were demanding a remedy for the present 

Regardless of recent (events) we praise old times. 

Those barbarians are very covetous of cattle. 

I am not unmindful of your command, Sextius. 

He was ready in soldiering about town ^, unaccustomed to 

Italy at that tune was full of Greek arts and disciphne. 

Africa is said to be very fruitful oi wild animals. 

A trumpeter, himself unskilled in fighting, yet incites others 
to the fray. 

In Africa are vast tracts bare of herbage. 

Carthage, emulous of the Roman power, perished utterly '. 

Our ancestors were greedy of honour, prodigal of their 

Examples on the Genitive Prolative and Objective. 

{More Difficult,) 

The age, however, was not so barren of virtues, that it has 
not shown us good examples also. 

In a warlike state, he thought there would be more (men) 
the like of Romulus, than of Numa. 

> Soldiering about town, militia 3 Ah stirpe, literally from the 

urbana, root. 


He was the enemy of a plan, however excellent, which he had 
not himself proposed. 

Not even his friends have denied he was very sparing of 
his wine. 

His disposition was ordinary', rather without vices than 
accompanied-by^ virtues; he was neither careless of his reputa- 
tion nor a braggart ' (of it), not covetous of other men's money, 
sparing of his own, greedy of the public, tolerant of his 
friends and freedmen, ¥rithout blame if he chanced to have 
fallen in ' with good men, if they happened to be bad ' ignorant 
to * a fault. 

Are you ignorant that the port of Cajeta, very much fire- 
quented and full of ships, was plundered by pirates while a 
praBtor was looking on ? 

No rank was free* from fear and danger; the chiefs of the 
senate were feeble with age, and slothful through long peace ; 
the nobility was lazy and forgetful of war ; the knights ignorant 
of military service. 

No one is so free from sorrow*, as not to have mourned ^* the 
death of some friend. 

They think souls are immortal, hence their contempt for 

That prince of Greece never wished to have ten men the 
like of Ajax, but of Nestor. ^ 

I am not come to kindle your affections into love for myself, 
nor to exhort your minds to valour, but I am come to demand ^^ 
from you a restraint of your courage, and a measure of your 
kindliness towards me. 

3 Medius. ' Imperf. subj. 

* Cum. * Usque ad. 

^ Venditator. ' Expert followed by a genitive. 

< Say, If hekad fallen tXplaperf. ^^ Say, That {ut) he has not. 

sabj. 1^ Poetulaturue. 

Pt, I/L ch. 13.] " DIGNUS'' AND COGNA TE WORDS, 128 



Thb adjective dignua {worthy) and cognate words require 
special notice. In English we should saj worthy of a thing ; 
in Latin we must saj worthy by a thing^ using an ablative 
case, and not a genitive. Thus, 

You are worthy of praise^ 
becomes in Latin, 

Tu laude dignus es. 
The same point is to be noticed in connexion with the verb 
dignoTf (/ deem worthy) : e. g. 

I deem you worthy of praise^ 

Dignor te laude. 

Dignor is sometimes deponent, meaning / deem worthy ^ and 
sometimes passive, meaning / am deemed worthy. 

Examples on ** Dignus ^ and cognate words. 

Thou alone art worthy of empire. 

He is worthy of death* 

How many days are imworthy of lighty and yet the day 

I determined to tnuucrilie the acts of the Bomaa people, as 
each seemed worthy of record* 

No upstart was so illustrioiUy tm not to be* coiutidered un- 
worthy of the eonsniiihip. 

The Bomaiis ever have deemed virtue worthy ot honoan 

All men thought me warthy of recognition and hospitality* 

Things unlike among thenuelvea are deemed worthy c^ a 
like hononr* 

I never though yoor son worthy of 00 great anxiety* 

> 9mj, Thai %• wigkt not he^Sft^ or, who migU iKft, ^e* 

124 THE DATIVE CASE. \Pt. Ill, ck. 14. 

Do you not account so great a prize worthy of a little toil ? 
He has hitherto received no punishment worthy of his 



The dative may be used to convey a notion of advantage or 
disadvantage after most verbs or adjectives : e. g. 
(i.) He was very dear to me, 
(ii.) Arms alone were wanting to them, 

(i.) Mihi erat carissimus. 
(ii.) Arma tantum defecere illis. 
As the idiom in this respect is the same both in Latin and 
English j no difficulty will be experienced here. 

Examples on the Dative, 

To slaves the household is as-it-were their state. 

Let us not prefer security to honour. 

Periods of transition ^ are seasonable for great attempts. 

We prefer victory to peace. 

Such a supper is scarcely enough for ten. 

I lately heard Yirgilius Romanus reading a comedy to a few 

There were closing- scenes ' equal to the vaunted ' deaths of 
the ancients. 

The mind of Otho was not effeminate, (and) like his body. 

To all the most rapacious and abandoned, there remained 
not estates or capital \ but only the instruments of their vices. 

1 IVanntus rerum, ' Laudatus, 



The valour and haughtiness of their subjects is displeasing to 
those in command '^. 

His death was moumfnl to his friends, and not without 
regret even to sti*angers and those unknown to him. 

It is not the part of a wise and brave man to succumb to 

Livy, the most eloquent of ancient historians, has likened the 
shape of Britain to an oblong target or a two-edged axe. 

What speech can be found equal to the virtue of Cnseus 

To tyrants the good are more suspicious • than the bad, and 
another's virtue is alvmys formidable. 

The delay of the dictator Fabius was not pleasing to the 
■^ ^ In victory it is allowed even to cowards to boast. 

He preferred the advantage of his king to reputation or 

The fight became more like an affair with robbers ' than a 

Such haste leaves no room for prayers. 

Your gifts have been all snatched-away from me. 

Do you make me equal® to you? 

Given up to the pleasures of the body, they pass their time 
in luxury and sloth. 

Examples on the Dative. 

(More Difficult,) 

Woe to the warrior who throws-away his shield. 
You sleep much and drink often, both which things are 
foes • to the body. 

Believe that every day has dawned upon you the last. 

^ Say, To those commanding, ^ To make equal, acUsquare. 

^ Suspectior. ^ Inimiea, neut. plor. 

7 Affair with rohhers, latroei' 
nium, dat. 

186 EXAMPLES ON THE DATIVE. [Pi. III. ch. 14. 

Epictetus to those inquiring who ¥ra8 happj answered : '* He 

for whom what he has is enough." 

Catiline arranged snares in every way i(x Cicero, nor was 
craft or astuteness wanting to him for guarding against theIn'^ 

Who is more friendly to a brother than a brother, or what 
stranger " will you find ^ithful, if you have been a foe to your 

What is so contrary-to ^' custom as that an army should be 
entrusted to a very young man, whose age is far from the 
senatorial grade ? 

I think that commands were the more often given and armies 
entrusted to Maximus, to Marcellus, to Scipio, to Marius, and 
to other great generals, not only on account of their valoar, 
but also on account of their good fortune. 

Those but now cautious and prudent became after the 
event eager and boastful. This is the 'most unfair condition of 
command, all men claim success as their^' own ^^ disasters ^ are 
imputed to one alone. 

The emperor did not give him the salary wont to be offei'ed to 
a man of proconsular rank, and granted to several by himself. 

He told me he had lost his way, and was dying for want of a 

I gave him two pence, and he promised me not to beg again. 

She is come to fetch the birds you promised her. 

Tell her the birds are flown. 

By shedding tears, and persistently demanding better (terms) 
they obtained safety for their city. 

When you have given yourself up to carelessness and sloth, 
you will in vain implore help of the gods ^^ 

That crop will at length respond to the prayers of the hus- 
bandman, which has twice felt the sunshine^*, twice the frost ^^. 

10 For guarding against them, ad ^^ Say, For themtelveM, 

eatsendum. " Cf. Pt. I. ch. viiL 

" Alienw. " Prater. " Sol. 

" Suecees^-dieasters, Lat. pros- *' I^igora^ 
peroue (things)-~<tdveree (things). 


To 70U be arms and courage, leave to me the plan and the 
direction of your valour. 

He trusts himself to the enemy in the absence of his fHends '^ 

Alexander the Great used to say that he owed not less to 
Aristotle than to his father Philip. 

Those who had no enemy ", were crushed •* by their friends. 

Slaves, bom to bondage, are sold once-for-all, and are kept by 
their masters: the Britons buy service by-the-day". 

Nature intended that his children and relatives should be 
very dear to every-man. 

Warfare and arms, which are honourable to the brave, are 
also safest for cowards. 

Agricola instructed the sons of the British chiefs in the liberal 
arts ; and he is said to have preferred the talents of the Britons 
to the industry of the Gauls. 

He betrothed his daughter to me (when) young, then of sur- 
passing promise **, and after his consulship he gave her in 
marriage ". 



Many verbs in Latin govern a dative, when an accusative of 
the direct object might be expected. 

This is to be explained by a notion of advantage, or the 
opposite, which they convey, but in many instances this notion 
is so obscure, and there are so many exceptions to any rule 

1* Say, Hi8 friends hdng absent, ^^ Quotidianus, 

abl. abfi. ^3 Surpaeeing promise, egregia 

1^ Say, To whom an enemig was spes, 

wanting (deesse). 3' CoUoeare, 

'• Opprimere, 


which may he laid down, that it is heat to trust to obseryation 
for an acquaintance with these verbs. 
In the following examples all such verbs are in italics. 

Examples on Verbs governing a Dative. 

Congratulate me. 

I cannot resist your entreaties. 

Many of the young nobles favoured the attempts of Catiline. 

Two kings were threatening the whole of Asia, very un- 
friendly not only to you, but even to your allies and friends. 

It is an honourable thing to benefit the common weal. 

Formerly his own goods sufficiently pleased every one. 

Farthest Thule will serve thee. 

I cannot withstand your entreaties. 

Such words did not please even Cato. 

Nothing can resist our arms. 

Some men only contradict others. 

The event did not answer his expectation. 

The talents of our countrymen have far excelled all others. 

Whom should I rather trust than thee? 

At one time the Roman people seemed to rule all races and 
nations both by sea and land. 

Aurelia hesitated to marry * Catiline, fearing his son by a 
former wife ', of adult age. 

All men were congratulating the emperor. 

The consul spared the citizens, and restored to them all their 

He told me every thing, and I obeyed him. 

Do not consult your anger rather than your reputation. 

It soon fell to him to excel all men in the glory of his genius. 

Rocks and deserts answer the poet's voice. 

They envy my honours, let them envy then my labour, my 
freedom from blame ^ and my dangers. 

1 Nuhere, properly, to veil oneself ^ A eon by a farmer wjfe, pri- 
for. This verb is only used of the vignua. 
woman ; a man is said ducere uxorem. > Freedomfi'om blttme, imnooeniia. 


Jugnrtha succoured his own men, and pressed-on * the waver- 
ing ' foe. 

Help me wretched (man). 

Examples on Verbs governing a Dative. 
{More Difficult,) 

Let us go forth from the city to meet Cicero on his petum* . 

Tou are c^out to rule men who can neither hear ahsolnte 
servitude, nor absolute freedom. 

He was by nature a laggard, and (one) whom cautious 
designs with system pleased rather than success bj accident ^ 

Go, madman, and rush through the wild Alps, that jou may 
please boys, and become a subject-for-a-theme '. 

X said this to persuade him. 

The tree, which God has planted, no blast can harm. 

His arrival both restrained Mithridates, inflamed with un- 
wonted victory, and delayed Tigranes, {nowy threatening Asia 
with his vast forces. 

It is lawfiil for victors to command the vanquished as-they- 

Now they understand that not without cause did their 
ancestors wish rather to ohey the Roman people than to 
command others, when we had magistrates of such moderation. 

So easy was the entrance of private individuals to him, that 
he, who excelled princes in rank, in facility (of access) seemed 
equal to the lowest. 

Our ancestors always obeyed custom in peace, expediency in 
war, and always accommodated ^^ the plans of hew designs to 
the new accidents of the times. 

He considered that this circumstance had damaged him with ^^ 

* Instare, * Q^emadmodu1n. 

^ Duhius. 10 To accommodate to, accommO' 

^ Say» returning, dare ad. 

7 Ex ccuu. ^^ Apud, 

" Declamatio. 


an aged prince, that it would damage him still more with a 
joung one, by disposition cruel, and made-brutal^' bj a long 

Since I cannot remt the factions of mj enemies, I yield to 

Tiberius resisted the consul's authority, and wished to give 
corn to the people without price. 

You could not easily discover whether Sempronia spared 
less her money or her reputation. 

It did not seem illustrious to Marcus Curius to possess gold, 
but to command those-who-possessed-it. 

Jugurtha charged Bomilcar, (a man) faithful to himself, to 
procure assassins for Massiva. 

I have heard from my father that elegance bejlts women, 
toil men. 

We think it safer to rule willing (men), than (men) con- 



Sometimes, instead of a complement agreeing with the subject, 
the verb *to be' is followed by a dative of the complement. 
Thus instead of translating — 

The ant is an example of great labour, 

JSxemplum est magni formica laboris, 
we may say — 

Exemplo est magni formica laboris. 

The ant is for an example, of great labour. 

Examples on the Dative of the Complement, 
All these things were a great encouragement to the Romans. 


I am compelled to be rather a burden than of service * to 

A record of acts performed is (of) great service. 

Men are not a cause-of-anxietj' to the immortal gods. 

The veiy age of Galba was a cause of mockery • and disgust 
to those accustomed to the youth of Nero. 

All new slaves^ are a laughing-stock to the household and 
to their fellow-servants. 

To whom were you a protection with your fleets ? 

You have been for ten years a laughing-stock to the rich. 

Arms, not household-stufl^, ought to be an honour to you. 

The night would be a protection to them (if) conquered. 

I have been sent by my father (as) a guard for you. 

The fate of Fublius Claudius was a calamity also to his sister 

Examples on (he Dative of the Complement. 
{More Difficult.) 

It has been proved by frequent disasters that the safety of 
the Roman people is not a cause-of-anxiety to the gods, their 
punishment is. 

Whom will it benefit *? 

Among the good it was a grievance, that, having built an 
altar in the Campus Martins, he had performed funeral rites to 

With how little a wise man is content, Anacharsis the 
Scythian is an example. 

Many men are given up to debauchery and indolence, and to 
these their body is a source-of-pleasure *, their mind a burden. 

A little after, those to whom the death of Damasippus had 
been a source-of-delight, were themselves dragged-forth. 

1 Say, Than for a use to you. ' Say, To tohom will it he a good 

^ Cura. (thing)? 

3 Say, Waafor a mockery. ' Say, A pletteure, and so oii 

^ Say, Every most recent sla/oe, through the exercise. 

K 2 

182 ''SUM'' WITH THE DATIVE. IPt. III. ch. 17. 

Micipsa thought that the virtue of Jugurtha would be an 
honour ' to his kingdom. 

M7 father (when) dying charged me that I should strive to 
be as much use as possible " to the Roman people, both at home 
and in war. 

The Aliobroges long held it uncertain what plan they should 
adopt *. 

A naval force was ever a care to him who followed this plan. 

Wealth and honour are a burden and a source-of-misery to 
those who have endured dangers and adversity. 

You fear those to whom you ought to be a terror. 

There are men to whom faith and duty are a subject-for-gain". 

When the war was renewed, the consul hastened to transport 
into Africa supplies, money, and other things which might be 
of use to the soldiers. 

His noble-birth, which was formerly an honour to the 
general, began to be a souree-of-envy. 



The use of the dative to indicate possession is very common 
in Latin; it will best be understood from the following ex- 

English. Latin. 

I have an apple. Est mihi pomnm. Literally, there is an apple to me. 

Thou hast an apple. Est tibi pomnm. Literally, there is an apple to thee. 

He has an apple. Est ei pomum. Literally, there is an apple to bim. 

We have an apple. Est nobis pomnm. Literally, there is an apple to as. 

Te have an apple. Est vobis pomnm. Literally, there is an apple to yon. 

They have an apple. Est iis pomum. Literally, there is an apple to them. 

f Gloria. • Capere. 

3 At much at possible — ^fuam ^^ Subjevifor gaintqiimstms, 


y*. Ill^ch. i8.] THE GERUNDIVE, 133 


So also — 

I have apples. Sunt mihi poma. Literally, there are apples to me. 

T had an apple. Erat mihi pomtim. Literally, there was an apple to me. 
I will have an apple. Erit mihi pomum. Literally, there will be an apple to me. 

And so on. 

Examples on the Verb ^^Sum " with the Dative, 

Those barbarians have blue eyes and yellow hair. 

I had no intention to wear away my good leisure in idleness 
and sloth. 

The Gracchi had a spirit not sufficiently temperate. 

Metellus had the valour of his soldiei*s and the advantage 
of the ground *, Jugurtha all other things, except soldiers, fit- 
for-the-occasion ■. 

You will have no quiet day or night after this. 

I have all my hope in myself. 

The Bomans who have a noble name do not despise those 
who have none. 

Nor had they alone an alien mind, who were conscious of 
the conspiracy, but the whole plebs approved of the under- 
takings of Catiline through a desire of a new state of things '. 

Always those in the state who have no wealth envy the good 
and extol the bad. 

There were a few men at Rome, who had a habit of 
vending their honour and dishonour \ 



Instead of the gerund acting on an object, the corresponding 
case of the gerundive is generally (but not always) used. 

* The advatUc^e ^ the ground, • Say, Of new tJUnge (ree), 

locus adversus, * Say, To whom it w<m a habit to 

3 Opportunut* vend, ^c. 


This construction will best be understood from examples. 

Thus, for saving the state would be in Latin ad rempublicam 
urvandam (literally, for the state to^be-saved). 

Soy of saving the state would be reipubliccs servandcs (literally, 
of the state to-be-saved). 

So also, % saving the state would be republicd servandd 
(literally, by the state to-be-saved). 

It may be of some assistance to airange the construction of 
the gerund and gerundive in parallel columns. 

Oerund,, C^erundive. 

(For) saving the state. (Ad) pervandum rempubli- (Ad) rempublicam 

cam. servandam. 

Of saving the state. Servandi rempublicam. Be^publics servanda 

To (or for) saving the state. Servando rempublicam . Beipublics servandiB. 
By saving the state. Servando rempublicam. Eepublic& servanda. 

When this construction has been mastered, it will be observed 
that the noun is attracted to the case of the gerund, and the 
gerund to the gender and number of the nouu. 

Examples on the Gerundive. 

All things are ready for^ carrying on the war. 

They were deliberating about making peace. 

The glory of protecting our liberty will be yours. 

The art of catching fish is to-be-leamt by waiting. 

Before seeing the city we will sup with you. 

Fabius went to Rome in the hope of seeing his daughter. 

Experience teaches us the art of collecting knowledge. 

C^rialis allowed too little time for accomplishing such great 

The city was ready to receive and believe every thing 

The poet Archias brought all his industry and talent to 
celebrate the praise and glory of the Roman people. 

1 Ad. 


Ton will gain for jonraelf friendships imlh^' bj gnntiog 
favonrs, than \sj leoeiTing them. 

Thej wear ont thdr bodies in fbrtiijing woods and swamps 
amid blows and insults. 

Fifty dradmue seem too mnch to an ignorant and nuserlj 
man for educating his son. 

After the supremacy' of Lucius Sulla^ a great desire came-on 
Catiline of seizing the public pn^rtj. 

A time was appointed for distributing the monej. 

You spend jour time in building-out ' the sea, and loTelling 

Examples on the Gerundive. 
{Mare Difficult.) 

The cause of his drawing up the fleet was to intercept the 
supplies coming-up from CrauL 

I will now speak about choosing a commander for this 
purpose \ and giving him authoritj ^ over such important 

The fathers thought that ambassadors ought to be sent' 
about making p^ce. 

Those Tcry philosophers in the pamphlets thej write about 
despising fame inscribe' their own names. 

Thej somewhat obscurely* praised rest and leisure, and 
offered their assistance in reconmiending * an indulgence *• 

The troops of Fabius Yalens also, lajing-aside their contempt 
of the enemy, with the desire of recovering their honour, 
began to obey their leader more respectfully and uniformly *. 

He went to see his mother before leaving the city. 

We will strive to discover a method of stopplog this work. 

3 Extruere. * CompantiTe. 

* Ad hoe. ^ Adprobare. 

^ To give a mum amihorUy over * Sxeueaiio. 

any thing — fra^ieere quern euL * .XquabiiUer* 
' QsL'jtWeretO'be-eeutigienaiiSiy^. 

136 •« QUr^ WITH SUBJUNCTIVE. \PL III ck. 19. 

Readj to dissemble every thing, Catiline, with downcast 
face, and suppliant voice, addressed the senate. 

Your ancestors, for the sake of gaining their rights '^ and 
establishing their dignity", twice seized the Aventine in-arms. 

Aalus conceived the hope either of finishing the war, or of 
obtaining money from the king through terror of his army. 

A great desire came-upon Marius of gaining-possession-of 
that town. 

I have taken up arms, not with hostile intent, but for pro- 
tecting my kingdom. 

He committed to them the power '* of arranging ^' matters, 
and of settling the war in whatever way they pleased ". 

By shedding tears and persistently demanding better (terms) 
they obtained safety for their city. 



"qui" with the subjunctive. 

It has been pointed out that the relative pronoun has 
much the same force as a personal or demonstrative pronoun 
preceded by a conjunction *. In the examples which were 
given the conjunction and was used; in this case it wan shown 
that the relative clause was descriptive, or adjectival 
Tims, in the example — 

{who 1 
and He f ^^®**®^ ^^> 

the relative clause who ,created us was shown to describe the 
antecedent God like an adjective. 

It must now be learnt that other conjunctions, viz., in order 
that, jbecause, inasmuch as, although^ &«., when used with a 

1® Sing. ^* JThcUever they pleated, ^ttlibet 

11 Mafeettu, agreeing with way. 
w Uoentia. ♦ Pt. II. ch. i. 

" Agere. 

/v. ///. cA. 19.] EXAMPLES ON " QUr WITH SUBJ. 


demonstrative or personal pronoon, may be translated into 
Latin by the relatiye. 

In all these instances the verb in the relative clause must 
be in the subjonctive mood. Thus, 

We worship Gk>d, because He created us, 
may be translated into Latin— 

Deum veneramnr, qui nos creaverit, 
where qui stands for because ke^ 

Caesar sent messengers to inform the senate, 
Biaj be translated — 

Csesar nuncios misit, qui senatum certiorem facerent> 
where qui stands for m order that they. 

Qui requires the subjunctive also, when it has the force of 
9uch as : e. g. 

These are not verses which (L e. such as) will survive. 
Hasc carmina non sunt ea quae supersint. 
Qui may be used in this waj to translate the English 
infinitive in such sentences as — 

(i.) Titus is not a man to fear death. 
(iL) He was not so foolish, as to contend with me. 
These may be analyzed thus: 







is not 
would fear 
was not 
would contend 


a man 

so foolish 
with me. 

(i.) Titus non est is qui mortem timeat. 

(ii.) Non erat tam ineptus quam qui mecum contenderet. 

Examples on " Qui " ivith the Subjunctive. 

All men praised my good fortune, because I had a son 
endued with such a disposition. 

No friend will shield you, if arms have not protected you. 
I am not a man to deceive you. 

138 EXAMPLES ON ** QUV WITH SUBJ. [iV. ///. ch, 19. 

You are not so ignorant as to think this true. 

Caesar desired for himself a high command, an armj, and a 
new war, that his virtue in it might shine-forth. 

I cannot praise jou because jou are idle. 

They say that I am feigning \ and pretend flight, when it 
was permitted me to remain in the kingdom. 

Not armies nor treasures are a protection for a kingdom, but 
friends such as you can neither constrain by arms nor gain by 
gold ; they are bom of duty and honour. 

Nature has given reason to man, that he may govern the 
impulses of his feelings by it '. 

He bore the appearance of grief in his countenance, as (one) 
who could more easily disguise joy than fear. 

I concede the first place to Alexander, said Scipio, bat I 
come before ' Hannibal, because I conquered him. 

We have dreamed a dream, and there is none to interpret it. 

Have you nothing to say ? 

He is an impudent man to contend with me. 

Thou alone art worthy to reign *. 

Let them leave to us toil and danger, for to us these things 
are sweeter than their banquets. 

There were some who thought that Albinus was at that 
time ignorant of the king's design. 

There is neither river nor mountain to separate our borders. 

I told you what to do. 

There is no speed which can contend with the speed of the 

The Carthaginians sent ambassadors to seek help fit)m the 

The blaze of the sun is brighter than that of any fire, 
inasmuch as it illumines the whole world. 

Although Adherbal had sent messengers to Rome to inform 
the senate of the murder of his brother and his own mis- 

^ Fingere verba* ' Anteire, 

' loBtemd of 7^i hy it. Bay, By ^ Say, Who m<^ reign, 



fortunee, nevertheless, reljing on the number of his soldiers, 
he prepared to contend in aims. 

Catiline was not a man to shrink-from danger. 

What is left to stir him, but your power ? 

Jugurtha gained-over Caius Baebius the tribune of the 
people by a great bribe, that by his assistance he might be 
fortified against right and wrongs of all kinds *. 

He began to bring-up ' mantlets, to throw-up a mound, and 
to hurry-forward other things which might be of use ^ for 
an assault. 

When there were first found men of the nobility to prefer 
true glory to unjust power, the state began lo be disturbed, 
and civil dissension to arise. 

I have told you what I wish you to do. 

Xerxes promised a reward to any one who would show him 
a new pleasure. 



The perfect passive participle in English is often confused 
with the active aorist of the verb ; this difficulty will best be 
overcome by practice. 

It may be some help to observe that, if a participle be acci- 
dentally mistaken for a verb, no subject can be found for it: e.g. 

Overwhelmed by age and sorrow, he returned home. 
In this example overwhelmed is a participle. 

If it be mistaken for a verb, and we try to find its subject 
by asking the question who overwhelmed ? we get no answer. 

The sentence will of course be analyzed thus — 

' Say, Against all wrongs, 7 Dat. compl. 

• Agere. 



He, overwhelmed by 1 I 

»,«A ««^ .^...^^ r returned 

age and sorrow, J | 

Senectute confectns et dolore domam rediit. 


Examples on the Perfect Passive Participle. 

He died revered by friend and foe. 

Twelve vultures seen before set of sun made Romulus king. 

I have received many letters from you, all carefully written. 

Taught by calamity, we ought to retain that in our memory. 

Spain has often seen her foes Overcome and laid-low by this 

All men regard * Pompey not as one sent from this city, but 
as fallen from heaven. 

The city founded by Romulus was called Rome. 

They did not tolerate the liberty of Roman citizens in- 
fringed *, will you overlook their life snatched-away ? 

They avenged the right of an embassy violated in word, 
will you leave your ambassador slain with every cruelty • ? 

They found the consul sitting op a stone, choked^ with 

The recollection of pleasure past is the worst pain. 

The Roman soldiers, roused by the unwonted tumult, began 
some to catch-up their arms, others to hide themselves. 

The impetuosity of the victors was checked ^ lest the enemy 
strengthened by fresh reinforcements should change the 
fortune of the battle. 

Surrounded on all sides by foes, he challenged death by his 

These rites, by whatever means introduced, are defended by 
their antiquity. 

The sand of this river mixed with nitre, is fused into glass. 

1 Intueri. * Oppleius* 

■ Imminuere. » Seprimere, 

* Supplieium, 

Pt. Ill, ch, 20.] EXAMPLES, PERF, PASS. PARTICIPLE, 141 

The cavalrj sent against them with some light-infantry* 
contended without-result ^ 

The charm of idleness increases daj-bj-daj', and sloth, hated 
at first, is at length loved. 

A certain inhabitant of that city, noted for a disease of his 
eyes, embraced' the knees of the emperor, with much groaning 
praying for a cure of his blindness. 

This he did by the admonition of the god Serapis, whom 
that nation, given to superstition, worship in preference to all 
other gods *. 

A lion.having-seen'* a she-goat walking on an abrupt rock, 
advised her rather to come-down into the green plain. 

Taught by others' experience that victory is of little (worth) 
if injustice follow, he determined to eradicate the causes of 

Men skilled in war observed that no other leader had more 
sagaciously selected advantageous localities ^^ and that no 
fortress planted by Agricola was taken by the assault of the 
enemy, or abandoned by capitulation or flight. 

In the same summer, a cohort of the Usipii, levied in 
Germany, and sent-over into Britain, dared a great and 
memorable action. 

Having slain their centurion they embarked ^' in three ships 
and were carried-out to sea. 

Pi'esently, carried hither and thither by the wind, and driven 
away by the Britons, they came to such-a-pitch " of want, that 
they eat (first) their most sickly, and-then " (such as were) 

And thus carried-round Britain", having lost their ships 


« SiBpediti, 7 Ambiffue, i' To such a pitch, ^c. — eo ad 

^ In dies, extremum, ^c, 

• Say, Before all other gods, ^* Mox. 

i<^ Use conspicari (deponent). ** Ace. governed by the preposi- 

1^ Say, Opportunities of places. tion ciroum contamed iacircumvecti 

^3 To embark in aship — ascendere (carried round), 


through ignorance of navigation, taken for ^* pirates, they were 
intercepted first by the Suevi, and then by the Frisii. 

In a few days he set out, ordered by the senate to depart 
from Italy. 

The Britons in-no-way discouraged" by the result of the 
former combat, and awaiting revenge or slavery, taught at 
length that a common peril is to-be-repelled by unity, had 
assembled the power ^' of all the states by embassies and 

Few in number, fearful in their ignorance, regarding every 
thing, the very sky, the sea, the forests (as) strange ", the gods 
have handed-them-over to us in-a-way ^ enclosed and fettered. 

He came to the palace by night, and being received with a 
brief salutation, and no conversation, he was mingled in the 
crowd of attendants. 

Snatched away in the midst of a healthy old age, he escaped 
coming'^ evils, while his dignity was unimpaired, his fame 
flourishing, and his relatives and friends in safety. 

!• Kahm pro, &c. *• Iffnotus. 

17 Defrcustut. ^ Quodammodo, 

»» Vires, »» Futunu. 




abU ablative. 

ace., accnsatiTe* 

adj., adjectiye. 

adv., adverb. 

c. abl., c. aoc, &c,, with abktive, 

with accusative, &c. 
c, common (gender), 
conj., conjunction, 
dat., dative, 
def., defective. 
f., feminine. 

The conjugation of a verb is denoted by a ^gwre placed after it. The 
declension of a noun is left to be inferred from its genitive case. 

gen., genitive, 
indd., indeclinable, 
intrans., intransitive, 
m., masculine, 
n., neuter. 
pL, plural, 
prep., preposition, 
sing., singular, 
subst., substantive, 
trans., transitive* 


abandon, relinquo, liqui, lictum, 3; 

desero, rui, rtum, 3. 
abandoned, L e. lost to shame, per- 

ditus, a, um. 
able, to be, possum, potui, posse, 
abode, sedes, is^ f. 
abound, abundo, 1. 
about, circum ; nec^rUf, fere ; cofi- 

ceming, de (c. abl.). 
above, super (c. ace. and abl.); from 

above, desuper. 
abroad, foris. 

absent, to be, absum, fui, esse, 
absolute, absolutus, a, um. 
abuse, vituperatio, onis, f. 
abyss, abyssus, i, m. 
accept, accipio, cepi, ceptum, 3. 
access, aditus, us, m. 
accomplish, perficio, feci, fectum,3. 
accomplislied, i.e. cultured, poll- 

tus, a, um; doctus, a, um. 

acoord, of his own, sponte (suA). 
accuse, accuse, 1. 
accused, the, reus, i, m. 
accustomed, to be, soleo, solitus, 2. 
acknowledge, agnosco, novi, ni- 

tum, 3. 
acquainted with, to be. See to 

acquire) to, acquire, sivi, situm, 3; 

paro, 1. 
across, trans (c. ace.), 
act, an, factum, i, n. 
act-wildly, to, furo, 3. 
active, celer, is, e. 
adapted, aptus, a, um. 
add, addo, didi, ditum, 3. 
admire, admirer, 1. 
admiration, admiratio, onis, f. 
admit, admitto, misi, missum, 3; 

recipio, cepi, ceptum, 3. 
admonish, admoneo, ui, itum, 2. 
admonition, admonitio, onis, f. 
adorn, omo, 1. 



adornment, cultas, qb, m. 

adult, adultus, a, nm. 

advance, to, pro^redior, groBsas, 3 ; 

procedo, cessi, cessam, 3. 
advantage, commodam, i, n« 
adversity, ret adversa. 
advise, moneo, ui, itum, 2. 
affiibllity, facilitas, atis, f. 
afTair, res, ei, f. 
affection, caritas, atis, f.; JUial 

affection, pietas, atis, f. 
after, post (c. ace.) ; ex (c. aU.). 
afterwards, post^. 
afirain, rursns; itemm. 
asratnst, contra (c. ace.) ; when mO' 

Hon U implied, in (c. ace), 
afire, setas, atis, f.; old offe, senectus, 

utis, f. 
afire, an, sseculam, i, n. 
afirree, consentiOf sensi, sensum^ 4.. 
afirreexnent, consensus, us, m, 
aid, aaxilium, i, n. 
aim-at, jacnlor, 1. 
alarm, to, terreo, ni, itom, 2. 
alliance, societas, atis, f. 
alien, alienas, a, um. 
alive, vivus, a» um. 
all, omnis, e; on all sidee, undique; 

in aU^ omnino. 
allow, sino, sivi, situm, 3; i^ if 

allowed, licet, 
ally, socius, i, m. 
alone, solus, a, um.. 
already, jam. 
also, et; etiam. 
altar, ara, se, f. 
always, semper, 
ambassador, legatus, i, m. 
amber, electrum, i, n. 
ambitious, ambitiosus, a, um. 
amonfir, inter (c. ace.); apnd (c. 

ampbitlieatre, amphitheatrum, i, 

ancestors, m^jores, um, m. 
ancestral, avitus, a, um; patrius, 

a, um. 
ancient, antiquus, a, um; priscus, 

a, um ; yetns, eris. 
and, et ; atque ; que (enclitic), 
angry, to be, irascor, iratus, 3. 
angry, iratus, a, um. 

animal, animal, alis, n.; wild am^ 

mal, fera, sb, f. 
announce, nuntio, 1 ; pnenuiitio. 
anoint, unguo, unxi, unctum, 3. 
another, alius^ a, ud; the other, 

alter, era, erum; another man's, 

alienus, a, um. 
answer, to, respondeo, di» nsnm. 
answer, an, responsum, i, n. 
anticipate, antieipo,. 1. 
antiquity, antiquitas, atis, f. 
any, uUus, a, um ; quis, qua, quid ; 

o^ Sfoi* please, quilibet. 
anxiety, cause of, cura, se, f. 
appear, videor, visus, 2; pareo, ui, 

itum, 2. 
appearance, species, ei, f. 
appease, place, 1. 
appetite, cupiditas, atis, f. 
apple, ponftum, i, n. 
appoint, constituo, ui, utum, 3; 

dico, dixi, ctum, 3. 
approve, probo, 1. 
apt, aptus, a, um. 
aoniour, ardor, oris, m. 
arise, orior, ortus, 4; surgOj but- 

rexi, surrectum, 3. 
armed, armatus, a, um. 
arms, arma, orum, n. 
army,, exercitus, us, m. 
around, circum (prep, c ace and 

arranfire, paro, 1 ; i. e. settle, com- 

pono, posui, positum, 3. 
arrival, adventus, us, m. 
arrive, advenio, veni, ventum, 4. 
arrogrance, arrogantia, ee, f. 
arrofirant, arrogans, tis; superboBy 

a, um. 
arrofirate, arrogo, 1. 
arrow, sagitta, se, f. 
art, ars, tis, f. 
as, ut. See Pt. II. ch.ii.; as it 

were, tanquam ; quasi, 
ask, rogo, 1. 
aspect, vultus, us, m.; aBpectua, 

us, m. 
ass, asinus, i, m. 
assailant, oppugnans, tis, m. 
assassin, insldiator, oris, m. 
assault (a town), to, oppngno, L 
assault, an, oppugnatio, onis, f. 



assemble, convenio, veni, ventmn* 

astnteness, astntia, sb, f. 
at, apud (c. acc») ; ad (c. ace), 
atrocity, atrocitas, atis, f. 
attach (to oneself), concilio, 1. 
attack, to, aggredior, gressas, 8; 

to attack a town, oppugno, 1. 
attempt, to, conor, 1. 
attempt, an, conatus, us, m. 
attendant, circumstans, tis ; comes, 

itis, c. 
attention, to pay, dare operam. 
attentively, intente. 
attract, traho, xi, ctam, 3. 
audacity, audacia, sb, f. 
aufirment, aageo, xi, cfcnm, 2. 
aufimr, augur, uris, m. 
augrory, augurium, i, n.; omen, 

inis, n. 
author, auctor, oris, m. 
authority, auctoritas^ atis, f . 
autumn, auctumnus, i, m. 
auxiliary, auxiliarius, a, um. 
auxiliaries, auxilia, orum, n. 
avail, valeo, ui, 2. 
avarice, avaritia, sb, f. 
avaricious, avams, a, um; cupi- 

dus, a, um. 
avenge, ulciscpr, ultns, 3. 
avidity, aviditas, atis, f. 
avoid, irito, 1 ; fogio, fiigi, itum, 3. 
a'wait, expecto, 1; maneo, nsi, 

nsum, 2. 
aware of, to be, novi, def. 
a-wful, terribilis, e; dims, a, um. 
axe, securis, is, f. 


bad, malus, a, um ; badly -disposed, 

baffsrage, impedimenta, orum, n.; 

sarcinse, arum, f. 
bake, coquo, xi, ctum, 3. 
banish, pello, pepuli, pulsum, 3. 
banquet, epulsB, arum, f. 
barbarian, barbarus, i, m. 
barbarous, ferns, a, um. 
barber, tonaor, oris, ra. 

bare, nudns, a, am. 
barren, sterilis, e. 
base, turpis, e (a4j*)* 
bathe, lavo, lavi, lotum, 1. 
battle, prselium, i, n. ; pugna, s, f. ; 

line qf battle, acies, ei, f. 
battlexjient, propugnaculum, i, n. 
bear, to, fero, tuli, latum, ferre; 

tolerate, tolero, 1. 
bearing, i. e. yait, habitus, us, m. 
beast-of-burden, jumentum, i, n. ; 

wild-beast, fera, se, f. 
beat, i. e.Jloff, csedo, cecidi, csssum, 

beaten, to be, vapulo, 1. 
beautiful, pulcher, chra, chrum. 
beauty, forma, us, f,; decor, oris, 

because, quia; quod, 
become, iio, &ctus, fieri; bejit, 

deceo, ui, 2 ; convenio, veni, ven* 

turn, 4. 
bed, lectus, i, m. 
befit. See become, 
before, (conj.J prius-quam; (prep.) 

ante (c. ace), 
beg, as a beggair, mendico, 1. See 

beffg-ar, mendicus, i, m. ; mendica, 

8B, f. 
begin, incipio, cepi, ceptum, 3; 

ecepi, def. 
beginning, initium, i, n. 
behind, post (c. ace). * 

behold, aspicio, spexi, sp6ctum,3; 

video, vidi, visum, 2 ; lo! ecce. 
behoves, it, decet. 
believe, credo, didi, ditum (c. dat.), 

belonging to another, alienus, a, 

below, iuAra (c, ace), 
beneflaction, benefactum, i, n. 
benefit, a, beneficium, i, n. 
benevolence, benevolentia, », f. 
beseech, oro, 1. 
besides, (prep.) preeter (e ace) ; 

(adv.) prsBterea. 
besiege, obsideo, sedi, sessum, 2. 
best, optimus, a, um. 
betake, oonferro, tali, latum, ferre; 

recipio, cepi, ceptum, 3. 




betray, prodo, didi« ditum, 8. 
betroth, spondeo, spospondi, spon- 

sain, 2. 
better, melior, as. 
between, inter (c. ace), 
bewail, ploro, 1. 
beware, careo, i, oantnm, 2. 
beyond, ultra (c. ace.) i pneter (c. 

bind, vincio, nxi« nctnm, 4. 
bird, avis, is, f. 
birth, partus, ns, m; noble hirth^ 

nobilitas, atis, f. 
bite, mordeo, momordi, morBom, 2. 
bitter, acerbus, a, nm. 
black, ni^er, gra, gram i ater, tnw 

m. >•/ 
blast, flatus, us, m. 
blaze, flamma, sb^ f. 
blind, csBcns, a, um. 
blindness, csBcitas, atis, f. 
blood, bloodshed, sanguis, inis, 

m. ; cruor, oris, m. 
blot-out, deleo, evi, etum, 2. 
blow, to, spiro, 1. 
blow, a, ictas, us, m. 
blue, cseruleus, a, um. 
boar, aper, pri, m. 
boast, glorior, 1. 
boastful, gloriosus, a, um. 
body, corpus, oris, n. 
bold, audax, acis ; tfi a good sense, 

fortis, e. 
bond, vinculum, i,n. ; compes, edis,f. 
bondage, servitus, utis, f. 
bone, 06, ossis, n. 
book, liber, bri, m« 
bookseller, bibliopola, te, m. 
booty, prsBda, se, f. 
border, finis, is, m. 
bom, to be, nascor, natus, 3. 
both, (adj.) ambo, sb, o ; (conj.) et. 
bound, boundary, fiinis^ is, m.; 

terminus, i, m. 
boy, puer, i, m. 
boyhood, pueritia, ce, f. 
brandish, quatio, quassi, ssum, 3. 
brave, fortis, e« 
bread-stuff, resfrnmeniaria. 
bread, panis, is, m. 
break, rusipo, rupi, ruptum, 8; 

frango, egi, actum, 8, 

break-out, emmpo. 
break-of-day, mane, indcL; hx 

prima, or Imx. 
breast-plate, lorica, », f. 
bribe, munua, eris, n. ; pretium, i, 

bribery, largitio, onis, f. 
bridge, pons, tis, m. 
brief, breris, e. 
bright, dams, a, um; splendMos, 

a, uin. 
brinff, fero, tali, latum, ferre. 
brlnff about, efficio, feci,fectam,8. 
bronze, ses, seris, n. 
brother, fhkter, tris, m. 
brow, (irons, tis, f. 
browse, tondeo, totondi, tonsom, 2. 
buffoon, scurra, e, m« 
build, edificok 1. 
bulk, magnitude^ inis, f. 
bull, taurus, i, m. 
burden, onus, eria^ n. 
burdensome, gravis, e; onerosoa, 

a, um. 
bum, uro, ussi, ustum, 3 ; cremo, 1. 
bury, sepelio, ivi, sepultum, 4. 
business, negotium, i, n.; res»ei,f. 
but, sed; unless, nisi. 
buy, emo, emi, emptum, 3. 
by, a (c. abl.); per (c. ace). 


calamity, calamitas, atis, f. ; dam. 

num, i, n. 
call, voco, 1. 

oall-for, i. e. demand, postal^, 1. 
oall-out, exclamo, 1. 
camp, castra, orum, n. 
can. See able, 
capacious, capax, acis. 
capital, caput, itis, n. 
oapitol, capitolium, i, n. 
capitulation, deditio» onis, f. 
captive, captivus, i, m. 
carcass, cadaver, eris, n. 
care, cura, ee, f. 
care, to take care, euro, I ; also 

dare operam. 
oarefkUly, diligenter. 
oareless, negligens, ntis. 



carelessnesB, soeordiai », f.; ne« 

gligentia, se, f. 
carry, porto, 1 *, veho, vexi. Tectum, 

3. See bear. 
carry-oif, rapio, rapni, raptum, 3. 
cast, jacio, eci>actuin> 3; mittOjinisi, 

misstim, 3. 
Ic^ast-down^ demitto. 
catcli, capioy cepi, captnm, 3 ; garnet 

capto, 1. 
cattle, pecus, pecoris, n. 
cause, causa, sb, f. 
cause, to, efficio, feci, fectum, 3. 
cautiously, caute. 
cavalry, equites, mn, m. \ eqmtata8> 

us, m. 
cease, desino, sivi or sii, sitnm^ 3« 
celebrate, celebro, 1. 
centurion, centurio, onifl» m. 
ceremony, rittts, us, m. 
certain, certos, a, um; a certain 

person, quidam. 
chain, yinculum, i> n. ; catena, ». f. 
chalk, creta, se, f . 
challensre, to, provoco, 1. 
chance, sors;^ tis, f. ; casus> us^ m. 
changre, to, mnto, 1. 
change, a, mutatio, enis, f. ; vices, 

una, f. (pi.) 
chapel, sacelkim, i, n. 
character, mores, um, m. 
charcoal, carbo, onis,. m. 
charge, a, impetus, us> m, 
charge, to, i.e. make a eharffe, 

Jacere impetum, 
chargre, to^ i.e. command, pne^ 

cipio> oepi, ceptum, 3; mando,.! 

(both c. dat. of the person)., 
chariot, currus, us» m. 
charioteer, auriga, se^ra. 
charm, to, delecto, 1. 
cheap, vilis, e. 
cheapness, vilitas, atis, f.. 
check, to,reprimo,pres8i,pre88nm,3; 

impedio> ivl or ii, itum, 4. 
cherish, foveo, fovi, fotum, 2. 
chief, primus, a>. um; a chirf, 

princeps, ipis, m. 
chiefly, maxime ; imprimis, 
child, infans,. ntis>^ c. 
children, libcri, omm, m.. 
choice, electio, onis, f.. 


choked, oppletus, a, um. 

choose, lego, legi, lectum, 3; 

eligo, 3. 
circuit, ambitus, us, m. 
circumstance, res, ei, f. 
citadel, arx, cis, f. 
citizen, dvis, is, c. ; fellovycitizen, 

city, urbs, bis, f. ; i. e. etate, ciTita8> 

atis, f . 
city-slaves, urhana servitia, 
civil, civiliss e. 

claim, to, posco, popo8ci>3 ; arrogo,!. 
clamour-for, postulo, 1. 
clear, darus, a, um; i.e. emdeni, 

perspicuus, a> um. 
clear, it is, constat, 1. 
clemency, mansuetudo, inis, f. 
cling-to, amplector, plexus, 3.. 
close, to, daudOjSi, sum, 3. 
cloud, nubes, is, f. 
cloudless, serenus, a, um. 
coast, ora, sb, f. ; litus,.. oris, n» 
coat. Testis, is, f^ 
cohort, cohors, rtis, f.. 
coin, nummns, i, m. 
coUeagrue, coUega, », m^ 
collect, colligo, legi, lectum, 3;: 

cogo,. coegi, coactum, 3. 
collector, tax, publicanus, i, m. 
colony, colonia, SB, f. 
column, ooluranai, se,. f..; of men^ 

agmen, inis, n. 
combat, pugna,. se, f. See battle, 
come, venio, Teni, Tentum, 4. 
comedy, comoedia, », f. 
comely, decens,. ntis ; pulcher, chra> 

Qommand, mandatum,. i, n* ; i. e. 

power, imperium, i, n. 
command, to, impero, 1^; mando, 1 

(both c. dat. of person); jubeo, 

jussi, jussum,.2.. 
commander, imperator, oris, m.; 

dux, ducis, m. 
commence, incipio, cepi, ceptum, 3^ 
commiseration, commis6ratio,onis, 

commit, committo, misi, missum, 3^ 
common, communis, e. 
common-people, plebs, plebis, f. ;^ 

Tulgas, i, n. and m. 



commonwealth, respnblica, rei- 

publicsB, f* I 
oommotion, motus, ns, m. ; tninul- 

tuB, us, m. 
companlonsliip, societas, atis, f. 
compare, compare, 1 ; confero, ttili, 

collatnm, ferre. 
comparison, comparatio, onis, f. 
compassion, misericordia, ee, f. 
compel, cogo, co^gi, coactum, 3. 
complain, queror, que^tus, 8. 
complaint, querela, bb, f. 
conceal, tego, texi, tectum, 3 ; abdo, 

didi, ditum, 3; occulto, 1. 
concede, concede, cessi, cessum, 3. 
conceive, concipio, cepi, ceptum, 3. 
concemingr, de (c. abl.). 
conciliate, concilio, 1. 
concourse, concursus, us, m. 
condition, conditio, onis, f. (used 

in all senses). 
conference, congressus, us, m.; 

colloquium, i, n. 
confidence, fiducia, sb, f.; fides, 

ei, f. 
confine, contineo, ui, tentum, 2. 
confirm, confirmo, 1. 
confiscate, publico, 1. 
confl'agrration, conilagratio, onis, 

congrratolate, gratulor, 1 (c. dat.)* 
connexions, affines, ium, c; pro- 

pinqui, orum, c. 
conquer, vinco, vici, victum, 3; 

supero, 1. 
conquest, victoria, », f. 
conscious, conscius, a, um. 
consciousness, conscientia, sb, f. 
conscript fathers, i. e. senators, 

patres conscriptu 
consecrate, consecro, 1. 
consecutive, continuus, a, um. 
consent, to, consentio, scnsi^ sen- 
sum, 4. 
consent, consensus, us, m. 
consider, puto, 1. 
consist, consto, stiti, statum, 1. 
consolation, solatium, i, n. 
console, solor, 1. 
consolidate, firmo, 1. 
conspiracy, conjuratio, onis, f. j 

conspiratio, onis, f . 

conspirator, conspirator, oris, m. ' 
conjurator, oris, m. 

constancy, constantia, e, f. 

constrain, cogo, coegi, coactum, 

consul, consul, ulis, m. 

consult, i. e. deliberate, delibero, 1. 

consult, i.e. a^Je adidce, codbdIo, 
sului, sultum, 3 (c. ace.) ; to con- 
sult the good of, consnlo (c. dat.). 

consume, consume, sumpsi, sump- 
tum, 3. 

contempt, contemptus, us, m. 

contend, contendo, di, sum, 3; 
certo, 1. 

content, contentus, a, um. 

contented. See content. 

contest, certamen, inis, n. 

contingrency, casus, us,m.; eyentns, 
us, m. 

continual, creber, bra, brum ; con- 
tinuus, a, um. 

continue, mnnee, mansi, mansmn ; 
i. e. go on^ pergo, perrexi, rectmn, 

contradict, contradico, dizi, dic- 
tum, 3 (c. dat.). 

contrary, contrarius, a, um. 

contrary to, centra (c. ace.). 

convenient, commodus, a, um ; 
conveniens, ntis. 

conversation, colloquium, i, n.; 
conversatie, onis, f. 

convey, veho, vexi, vectum, 3. 

com, frumentum, i, n. 

corpse, cadaver, eris, n. 

correct, to, coriigo, rexi, rectum, 
3 j emendo, 1. 

corrupt, to, corrumpo, rupi, rap- 
tum, 3 ; vitio, 1. 

cost, pretium, i, n. ; i. e. expense, 
sumptus, us, m. 

cover, to, tego, texi, tectum^ 8. 

covet, cupio, ivi, itum, 8. 

covetous, cupidus, a, um; appe- 
tens, ntis. 

council, concilium, i, n. 

counsel, consilium, i, n. 

count, to, numero, 1. 

countenance, vultus, us, m.; os, 
oris, n. 

country, a, terra, », f.; a« 



country, nu, roria, n. ; on^s own 

country, patria, 8B, f . 
courage, virtas, utiB, f . j animnB, i, 

conrae, cnrsas, us, m. 
court, to, ambio, ivi or ii, itom, 4. 
court, a, aula, sb, f . 
coward, tiniiduB, a, urn; ignavufl, 

a, am. 
cowardice, timiditas, atis, f.; ti- 

mor, oris, m. 
oowed, timidus, a, um. 
craft, i.e. cunning, calliditas, atis, 

f. ; astutia, », f . 
crafty, callidus, a, um; subdolus, 

a, um. 
crash, fragor, oris, m. 
crazy, deliros, a, um. 
create, creo, 1. 
credible, credibilis, e. 
credit, fides, ei, f. 
crime, crimeu, inis, n.; fiEUiinus, 

oris, n. 
csroaa, a, crux, crucis, f . 
cross, to, tngicio, jeci, jectum, 8 ; 

transeo, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
crowd, turba, »^ f.; multitude, 

inis, f. 
crown, corona, e, f. 
crown, to, corono, 1 ; cingo, dnxi, 

cinctum, 3. 
cruel, crudelis, e ; ferus, a, um. 
cruelty, crudelitas, atis, f . 
cry-out, exclamo, 1. 
cultivate, colo, colui, cultum, 3. 
cunning. See craft, crafty, 
cup, poculum, i, n. 
curded milk, lac concreium, 
cure, a, remedium, i, n. 
cure, to, medeor (no peif .), 2. 
custom, mos, moris, m. 
cut-to-pieces, oedo, cecidi, csBsum, 

cut-oir, intercludo, dusi, dusum, 3. 


daffsrer, pug^o, onis, m. 
daily, quotidianus, a, um. 
damage, damnum, i, n. ; detri- 
mentum, i, n. 

damage, to, noceo, ui, itum (c. 

damaging, molestus, a, um; to be 

dcunagingy see to damage. 
danger, pericalnm, i, n. 
danfferouB, periculosus, a, um. 
dare, audeo, ausus sum, 2. 
daring, i. e. courage, audacia, se, f. 
dark, obscurus, a, um; tenebrosus, 

a, um. 
darkness, caligo, inis, f . ; tenebrsB, 

arum, f. 
dart, telum, i, n. ; jaculum, i, n. 
daughter, filia, sb, f . 
dawn, lux, lacis,f.; mane,indcL 
dawn, to, dilacesco, diluxi, 3. 
day, dies, ei, m. and f . ; lux, lucis, f. 
dead, mortuus, a, um; half -dead f 

seminex, neois. 
deadly^ fatalis, e. 
deaf, surdus, a, um. 
dear, cams, a, um. 
deamess, caritas, atis, f. 
death, mors, mortis, f . 
debauch., stuprum, i, n. 
debauched,i.e.^w«fi to debauchery, 

dissolutus, a, um ; perditus, a, um. 
debauchery, libido, inis, f . 
debt, CM aUenum; debitum, i, n. 
decay, marcesco, 3. 
decide, decemo, crevi, cretum, 3. 
decimate, decimo, 1. 
declare, dedaro, 1 ; ostendo, tendi, 

tensum, 3. 
decree, to, decemo, crevi, cretum, 3* 
decree, a, decretum, i, n. 
decrepit, decrepitus, a, um. 
deed, factum, i, n. 
deem, -eestimo, 1. 
deem-worthy, dignor, 1. 
defeat, a, clades, ifl, f. v 

defeat, to, vinco, vici, victum, 3. 
defence, prsBsidium, i, n. ; tutela, 

ffi, f. 
defend, defendo, di, sum, 3. 
defile, to, polluo, ui^ utum, 3. 
delay, mora, a, f. 
delay, to, moror, 1 ; cunctor, 1. 
deliberate, delibero, 1 ; oonsulto, 1. 
delight, gaudium, i, n. 
delight, to, deleoto, 1; juvOj^ 1« 
deliver, libero, 1« 



demand, to, posoo, poposci, 8 ; pos- 

tulo, 1. 
deny, nego, 1. 

depart, excedo, cessi, oeflsnm, 3. 
departure, discessus, us, m. 
deplore, ploro, 1. 
depraved, pravus, r, um. 
deprive, spolio; 1; <leprived of, 

ezpen, tis. 
deputy, legatus, i, m. 
describe, describo, scripsi, scripfcnm, 

desert, to, desero, oi, rtam, 3 ; lin- 

qao, liqni, lictam, 3. 
deserter, transfuga, », m. 
deserve, mereor, meritus, 2. 
design, oonsilinm, i, n. 
desire, desiderium, i, n. ; cupido, 

in 18, f . 
desire, to, cupio, ivi, itum, 3. 
desirous, cupidns, a, nm. 
desolate, solus, a, um ; deaertus, a, 

despair, to, despero, 1. 
despair, desperatio, onis, f. 
despatch, to, i. e. tend, mitto, misi, 

missum, 3. 
despise, contemuo, tempsi, temp- 

tnm, 3. 
destiny, fiitum, i, n.; sors, tis, f.- 
destitute, expers, tis; vacuus, a, 

destroy, perdo, didi, ditum, 3. 
destructive, exitiosus, a, um. 
determine, statue, ui, utum, 3. 
detract, detraho, traxi, tractum, 3. 
devastate, vasto, 1. 
develope (intr.), cresco, crevi, cre- 

tum, 3. 
deviate, digredior, gressus, 3. 
devote, devoveo, yovi, yotum, 2. 
dictator, dictator, oris, m. 
die, morioT, mortuus, 3. 
diiference, discrimen, inis, n. 
difficult, d^fficilis, e; arduus, a, um; 

asper, era, um ; with difficultly, vix. 
diff, fodio, fodi, fossum, 3. 
dignity, diguitas, atis, f . 
dine, prandeo, di, sum, 2; ooeno, 1. 
dire, dims, a, um. 
direction, i. e. guidance, adminis- 

tratio, onis, f« 

disagreement, discordia, ce, f . 
disaster, damnum, i, n. ; dades, is, 

f . ; calamitas, atis, f. 
discern, cemo, crevi, oretum, 3. 
discipline, disciplina, e, f. 
disoord, discordia, sb, f . 
discouragred, defractus, a, um. 
discover, inv«nio, yeui, ventum, 4 ; 

reperio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
discuss, ag^to, 1 ; tracto, 1. 
disease, morbus, i, m. 
disembark, egredior, gressus, 3. 
disentang'le, explioo, 1. 
disgrace, dedecus, oris, n«; flagi- 

tium, i, n. 
disgraceful, turpis, e ; probosus, a, 

disgruise, to, dissimulo, 1. 
disgust, tffidium, i, n. 
dishonour, infamia, sd, f . See dis* 

dismiss, dimitto, misi, missum, 3 ; 

display, to, explico, 1 ; ostendo, di, 

sum, 8. 
displease*, displiceo, ui, itum, 2 (c. 

dispose, dispono, posui, positum, 3. 
disposed, bcUUy, mains, a, um; 

loell-dieposed, bonus, a, um. 
disposition, ingenium/ i, n.; in- 
doles, is, f. 
dispute, to, dispute. 1. 
dispute, a, contentio, onis, f. 
dissemble, dissimulo, 1. 
dissembler, dissimulator, oris, m. 
dissension, dissensio, onis, f. 
distance, distantia, sb, f. ; epaci 

between, intervallum, i, n. 
distant, to be, absum, fbi, esse; 

diste (no perf. or sup.), 1. 
distempered, SBg^r, gra, gmm. 
distingruisb, decemo, crevi, cretum, 

distinfiruisbed, i. e. illuetrioue, in- 

signis, e ; clams, a, um. 
distribute, distribue, ui, utum, 3. 
disturb, turbo, 1. 
disturbance, perturbatio, onis, f. ; 

motus, us, m. 
ditch, foSSR, 8B, f . 
diverse, diversus, a, am« 



divide, divido, visi) Tisnm, 8. 

divine, divus, a, tun ; diviDos, a> mn. 

division, a, pars, tis, f. 

do, fiicio, feci> fi&ctnni, 3. 

dooiunent, docnmenttim, i, n. 

doff, cank, is, c. 

donation, donam, i, n. ; donatiO) 

onis, f. 
door, janua, se, f. ; fores, am (used 

only in pl.)> 
doubt, to, dabito, 1. 
doubtfol, incertns, a, um $ dubins^ 

a, um ; in doubti in inoerto, 
downcast, demissus, a, um: de- 

jectus, a, ilm. 
down from, de (c. abL). 
draohma, drachma, sb, f. 
draff, traho, trazi, tractum, 3. 
draw (a sword), stringo, nzi, 

ictmn. See drag, 
draw-up (anamiy),instnio,struzi, 

struclium, 3. 
draw-by-lot, sortior, itus, 4. 
dream, a, somniam, i, n. 
dream, to, somnio, 1. 
dress, vestis, is, f. 
drink, bibo, bibi, 8 ; poto, 1. 
drive, to, ago, egi, actum, 8 ; pello, 

pepuli, pulsum, 8. 
drop, a, gutta, se, f . 
drown, merge, si, sum, 3. 
djfunk, temnlentus, a, um ; ebrius, 
' a, um. 

dry, siccus, a, nm ; aridus, a, um. 
dry, i. e. to become dry, aresoo, 3. 
dxdl, to be, torpeo, ui, 2. 
duly, rite. 
duty, a, officium, i, n. ; ^o parewU, 

pietas, atis, f. 
dye, fiicus, i, m. 
dye, to, tingo, nxi, nctam, 3 ; im- 

buo, ui, utmn, 3. 


easrer, ardens, ntis; capidus, a, 

eaffle, aquila, sb, f. 
earth, the, terra, a, f. ; tellos, uris, 


earthenware (a^.)^ fissilis, e* 

easily, facile. 

east, the, oriens, entis, m. 

easy, facilis, e. 

eat, edo, edi, esmm, 3 ; vescor^ 3 

(c. abL). 
educate, educo, Ij erudio, ivi or 

ii, itum, 4. 
elfect, to, efficio, feci, feotnm, 3. 
efTeminate, mollis, e. 
ei&ffy, effigies, ei, f. 
efTort, impetus, us, m. 
eiffht, octo, iudcl. 
eiffhty, octoginta, indcl. 
either, uter, tra, trum ; (couj.) aut ; 

elated, elatus, a, um. 
elect, eligo, legi, lectum, 3; creo, 

election, electio, onis, f. 
elesrance, gratia, », f.; elegantia, 

8B, f . 
elephant, elepbantus, i, m. 
eloquence, facundia, sb, f. 
eloquent,facundus, a,um; eloquens, 

else, alius, a, ud. 
elsewhere, alibi. 
embark, to, aeoendere navem. 
embassy, legatio, onis, f. 
embrace, to, amplector, plexus, 8. 
embrace, amplexus, us, m. 
eminent, clarus, a, um ; egregius, a, 

eminent, to be, supersum, fui, esse, 
emperor, imperator, oris, m. 
empire, imperium, i, n. 
empty, vacuus, a, um ; inanis, e. 
emulation, SBmulatio, oms, f. 
emulous, smulus, a, um. 
enact, decerno, crevi, cretum, S|. 
encircle, cingo, cinxi, cinctum, 3. 
encouraere, hortor, 1. 
encouragement, hortamen, inis, n. 
end, finis, is, m. 
endeavour, to, conor, 1; nitor, 

nixus or nisus, 3. 
endued, prsoditus, a, um. 
endurance, patientia, a, f. 
endure, patior, passus, 3. 
enemy, hostis, is, m. ; a private 

enemy, inimicus, a, um. 



enerffetlo, impiger, gra, gram, 
enervate, moUio, ivi or ii, itain, 4. 
encase (in combat), confligo, flizi, 

flictnm, 8; pugno, 1. 
engrossed, intentuBi a, am. 
enjoy, fraor, fruotus, 8 (c. abl.). 
enjoirment, yoluptas, atiHj f. 
enormous, ingens, ntis. 
enouflrh, satis, indcl. 
enquire, qosDro, qusBsiyi, sitnm, 8 ; 

rogo, 1. 
enraflred, iratuB, a, nm. 
enter, intro, 1 ; ineo, ivi or ii, itnm, 

entirely, omnino. 
entrails, viscera^ am, n. 
entrenchment, vallam, i, n.; agger, 

eris, m. 
entrust, credo, didi, ditam, 8; 

oommitto, misi, missum, 8. 
entry, introitus, os^ m.; aditos, as, 

envious, invidos, a, am. 
envoy, legatas, i, m. 
envy, invidia, e, f. 
equal, seqaus, a, am ; mdke equals 

fldquo, 1. 
equipment, apparatus, as, m, 
eradicate, eztirpo, 1. 
erect, erigo, rexi, rectum, 8 ; cxtrao^ 

xi, ctum, 8. 
err, erro, 1. 
escape, to, effugio, fagi, fiigitnm, 3; 

means of escape, reftiffium, i, n. 
especially, prsBcipae ; imprimis, 
establish, constitao, ai, utam, 3. 
estate, ag^r, gri, m. 
estimate, sostimo, 1. 
even, etiam ; vel ; not even, ne . « • 

event, eventus, as, m« ; exitas, as, m, 
ever, anqaam ; always, semper, 
everlasting, eternas, a, am. 
every, omniB,e; quisque, qaieqae, 

every where, passim, 
evil, malas, a, am ; (sabst.) malum, 

i, n. 
examine, inyestigo, 1. 
example, exemplum, i, n. 
exasperate, ezaspero, 1. 
excel, anteoello^ 3 (c. dat.). 

excellent, egr^us, a^ am; pr»- 

daras, a, am. 
except, prffiter (o. ace.), 
excite, excito, 1; moveo, mori* 

motum, 2. 
excitement, motos, us, m. 
excuse, exoaao, 1. 
exercise, exerceo, ui, itnm, 2. 
exhort, oohortor, 1. 
exile, exilium, i, n. 
exile, an, exnl, nlis, m. 
exist, existo, stiti, stitum, 8. 
expect, spero, 1 ; expecto, 1. 
expectation, expectatio, onis, f.; 

spes, spei, f. 
expediency, utilitas, atis, f. 
expedient, atilis, e. 
expense, sumptus, us, m. 
experience, experientia,8B,f.; usos, 

US, m, 
experience, to, experior, expertns, 

explain, explico, 1. 
exploit, factum, i, n. ; Acinus, ans, 

export, exporto, 1. 
expression (of face), vultos, us, 

extent, spatiam, i, n. 
extinguish, extinguo, nxi, ctum, 

extol, laudo, 1. 

e x tr a vagance, sumptus, us, m. 
extreme, extremus, a, um. 
extremely, valde. 
extremity, extremum, i, n. 
eye, oculns, i, m. 


fable, fobula, sd, f . 
fkbulous, fabulosas, a, am. 
fiace, osa oris, n. ; yultas, as, m. 
flBtciUty, fiicilitas, atis, f . 
fiBkOtion, &cti0j onis, f.; partes, 

inm, f . 
fiftctious, f actiosus, a, urn. 
flsde, marcesco, 8. 
fietil, deficio^ feci, f ectnm, 3. 
fisUr, palcber, chra, chram. iSttfjost. 



fEuth, fides, ei, f . 

fkithfal, fidas, a, am. 

fJEtU:, cado, ceddi, casuni, 8; labor, 

lapsus, 3. 
fUse, falsas, a, urn. 
fajae, f ama, e, f . 
fiumily, domns, us, f.; itmBekold^ 

familia, a, f . 
flEunine, feuoes, is^ f • 
fajaous, clams, a, am; insignlBy ej 

celeber, bra, brum, 
fietr, procal (adv.). 
tBxrn^ pnediam, i^ n. 
fiushion, mos, moriai, m.; oonsae- 

tudo, inis, f . 
fiate, fatom, i, n. 
father, pater, tris, m. 
fiatlierliuid, patria, e, f . 
fatigue, lassitado, inis, £; labors 

oris, m. 
fitnlt, culpa, e, f. 
favour, to, &veo, fiivi, firatom, 2 (c 

favoiir, gratia, », f. 
fear, timor, oris, m.; metos, oa^ 

m. ; f ormidq, inis, f. 
fear, to, timeo, oi, 2 ; metno^ oi, 3. 
feaat, epaliB, arum, f. 
featores, ora, orom, n. See coun- 
feeble, infirmus, a, um. 
feed, pascor, pastus, 3; yescor, 3 

(c. abL). 
feel, sentio, sensi, sensum, 4. 
feelings, animi, orum, m. 
feign, fingo, fin^ fictum, 3. 
fello'w-citizen, concivis^ is, c. 
ferocious, ferns, a» um; immanis^ 

fsrocity, feritas, atis, £; ssvitia^ 

8B, f. 
fertile, fertilis, e; feraz, ads. 
fetch, i. e. etunfnon, aroessOj iyi^ 

itum, 3. See bring, 
fetter, vinculmn, i, n.; compos, 

edis, m. 
fetter, to, vindo, vinxi, vinctum, 4. 
few, paucus, a, um. 
fickle, yarius^ a, um; incertus, a, 

fiction, reefldtB, 
field, ager, gri, m.; campus, i, m. 

fierce, ferox, ocis ; sstus, a, um. 

fifty, quinquag^ta, indcL 

fig'ht, pugna, e, £ 

fi^ht, to, pugno^ 1. 

figure, figora, ae, f. ; forma, », f. 

filial affection, pietas, atis, f . 

fill, repleo^ pleyi, pletum, 3. 

finally, denique. 

finance, yectigalia, um, n. pL 

find, inyeniob yeni, yentum, 4. 

finish, conficio, feci, fectum; per- 

ago, e^ actum, 3. 
fire, ignis, is, m. 
fire, to, i. e. eet fire to, accendo, 

cendi, censum, 3. 
firm, firmus, a» am ; constans^ tis. 
first, primus, a, um. 
fish, a, pisds, is, m. 
fit, aptus, a, am. 
five, quinque, indcL 
fix, figo, zi, xum. 
fiame, flamma, e, f. 
fiatter, adulor, 1. 
flee, fog^o, fiigi, f ugpitum, 3. 
fleet, a, classis, is, f . 
flesh, caro, canus, f. 
flight, fuga, », f. ; of a hird, yohi^ 

tus, us, m. 
flog, csBdo, cecidi, csuum, 3. 
flonxish, floreo, ui, 2. 
flow, fluo, xi, ctum, 3. 
flo'wer, flos, floris, m. 
fluctuating, yarius, a» am. 
fluency, copia, e, f. 
fly. See flee. 
fly (of a bird), yoH 1- 
foe, hostis, is, m. 
follow, sequor, secutos, 3. 
follower, comes, itis, c 
following, i. e. r0^»ai«, comitatus, 

us, m. 
fbod, dbus, i, js^ 
fool, foolish, stultus, a, um. 
foot, 'pes, pedis, m. 
for, (conj.) nam; enim; (prep.) pro 

(c. abL). 
forbid, yetOk ui, yetitum, 1; pro- 

hibeo, ui, itum, 2. 
force, yis, ace. yim, abl. yi. 
force, to. See compeL 
forced marches, magna itinera. 
forces, copied, arum^ f • 



foreign, eztenras, % urn. 

foresee, provideo, vidi, visam, 2. 

foreseeinflr, providos, a, am. 

forest, sylva, e, f . 

forget, obliyisoor, oblitoi, 3 (c. gen.). 

forgetftil, immemor, orb. 

f orgetfolneee^ oblivio, onii, f . 

form, foima, s, f. 

f ormeri priois us i tuperior, no. 

formerly, oUm. 

fbrmidable, fonnidolo8ii8> a, urn; 

timendos, a, am. 
fort, castmm, i, n. 
fortify, mu&io, ivi or ii, itam, 4h 
fortitude, fortitado, dinis, f. 
fortniiate, felix, icis. 
fortune, fortana, », f.; good for* 

tune, felicitaa, atia, f » 
forty, qnadraginta, indcL 
forum, forum, i, n. 
found, to, oondo, didi, ditam, 3. 
founder, oonditor, oris, m. 
four, qnataor, indd. 
frame, L e. body, corpus, oris, n. 
fraud, fraoB, f raudis, f. 
fray. See battle. 
free, liber, bera, berom ; expers, tis. 
free, to, libero, 1. 
freedman, libertus, i, m. 
freiBdom, libertas, atis, f . 
frequent, creber, bra, brum ; assi- 

duas, a, um. 
frequented, creber, bra, brum, 
frequently, crebro; ssspe. 
fresh, recens, ntis ; nevus, a, um. 
friend, friendly, amicus, a, am. 
friendship, amicitia, sd, f. 
frighten, terreo, ui, itam, 2. 
from, a; e or ex; de (all c. abl.). 
frost, gelu, indd. 
frtigal, parcus, a, um. 
fruit, fractus, us, m. ; f rages, am, f . 
fruitltd, fertilis, e ; ferax, ads. 
fugitive, fogitivus, a, am. 
Ailfll, perficio, feci, f ectum, 3. 
fall, plenus, a, am. 
ftmeral, a, fanus, eris, n.; funeral 

rites, inferiffi, arum, f. 
funeral (adj.), funebris, e. 
furro'w, sulcus, i, m. 
fuse, excoquo, ooxi, coctum, 3. 
future, futurus, a, um. 


gain, qosBstos, us, m.| laeram» 

gain, to, aoquiro, quisivi, quisitazn^ 

paro, 1. 
gain-strength, firmor, 1. 
gain-possession-of, potior, itos, 4 

(c. abl.) ; occupj, 1. 
gait, incessus, us, m. 
game, i.e. sport, Indus, i, m. 
game, ferina (caro), sb. 
garland, corona, s, f.; sertom, i, 

garment, yestis, is, f. 
garrison, prsesidium, i, n. 
gate, porta, », f. 
gather, colligo^ legi, lectum, 3. 
gaoe-on, intueor, tuitus, 2; specto, 

1 ; inspicio, spexi, spectum, 3. 
gem, gemma, s, f . 
general, a, imperator, oris, m.; 

dux, duds, m. 
generally, fere, 
genius, ingenium, i, n. 
gentleness, comitas, atis, f.; leni* 

tas, atis, f. 
get. See gain. 

gift, donum, i, n. ; mnnus, eris, n. 
girl, paella, sb, f. 
give, do, dedi, datum, 1 ; done, 1 ; 

tribuo^ ui,'atum, 3. 
give-back, reddo, didi, ditum, 3. 
glad, IsBtus, a, um. 
glass, vitrum, i, n. 
glitter, inico, ui, 1. 
globe, globus, i, m. 
gloomy, obscnrus, a, um. 
glory, gloria, sb, f . ; f ama, sb, f> 
glow, ardor, oris, m. 
glow, to, ardeo, arsi, arsum, 2. 
glut, satio, 1. 
gluttony, ganea, sb, f . 
go, eo, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
go-by, prsBtereo, iv} or ii, itum, 4. 
go-forth, exeo. 

go-on, procedo, cessi, cessum, 3. 
goat, caper, pri, m. ; she'ffoat, ca- 

pella, SB, f. 
god, dens, i, m. 
gold, aurum, i, n. 
golden, aureus, a, am. 



firood, bonns, a, tun. 
8:ood-natare, facilitas, atifl, f . 
goodwill, benevolentia, e, f.; boni- 

tas, atis, f . 
govern, rego, rexi, rectnm, 8 ; im- 

pero, 1 (c. dat.). 
goveamxnent, imperinm, i, n. 
graoe, gratia, ab, f.; elegantia, », 

f . ; decor, oris, m. 
grace, to, deooro, 1. 
graciouBness, facilitas, atis, f. 
grade, g^dus, ns, m. 
grandeur, splendor, oris, m. ; mag- 

nitndo, inis, f . 
grand&ther, avns, i, m. 
grandson, nepos, otis, m. 
grant. See give, 
grass, herba, sb, f.; gramen, inis, 

grateful, grains, a, nm. 
gratitude, gratia, sb, f . 
gray, canus, a, am. 
great, magnns, a, nm ; g^ndis, e. 
greatness, magnitudo, inis, f . 
greedy, avidns, a, nm. 
green, viridis, e. 
green, to grow, viresco, 3. 
grief, dolor, oris, m. ; luctns, ns, 

grieve, doleo, ui, itum, 2. 
grieyance. See g^'ief • 
groan, to, gbmo, ui, itum, 8. 
groan, a, gemitus, us, m. 
groaning. See groan. 
ground, humus, i, f.; on the ground, 

grove, Incus, i, m. 
gro"w, cresco, crevi, cretum, 3. 
guard, cnstos, odis, m. See garri- 
guard, to, custodio, ivi or ii, itum, 

4; tueor, nitus, 2. 
guide, a, dux, ducis, m. 
guide, to, duco, duxi, ductum, 3. 
guilt, culpa, as, f . ; scelns, eris, n. 


habit, mos, moris, m. 
hair, crinis, is, m. ; of an animal, 
pilus, i, m. 

half, dimidinm, i, n. 

hallowed, sanctus, a> tun; 8acer» 

era, cmm. 
halt, consi8to> stiti, stitum, 3» 
hand, manus, us, f. j right-hand, 

dextra; ;«^-AaJMi, simstra. 
hand-down, trado, didi> ditum, 3» 
handsome, pnlcher, chra, chmm. 
handy, opportunus, a, nm* 
hang, pendeo, pependi, pensnm, 2 

(tr.) ', pendo, pependi, pensum 

(intr.). J 

happen, accido, idi, 3; contmgo, 

tigi, 3. 
happy, beatus, a, nm; fdix, wis. 

harass, vexo, 1. 
hard, durus, a, nm. 
hardihood, f ortitudo, inis, f . 
hardy, robustns, a, um. 
harm, detrimentum, i, n. 
harmful, noxius^ a, um; nocens, 

harmless, innoxius, a, um; mno- 

• cens, ntis. 

harP) cithara, se, f . 

harvest, messis, is^ f. 

haste, festinatio, onis, f . 

hasten, f estino, 1 ; propero, 1. 

hastily, temere. 

hate, odium, i, n. 

hate, to, odi, def . 

have, habeo, ui, itum, 2. 

haughty, ferox, ocis; superbus, a, 

haunt, to, freqnento, 1. 
he, ille, a, ud; is, ea, id; hie, hwj, 

head, caput, itis, n. 
headlong, prsBceps, cipis. 
health, salus, ntis, f . 
healthy, sanus, a, um; healthj\th 

saluber, bris, bre. 
heap, acervus, i, m. 
hear, audio, ivi or ii^ itum, 4. 
heart, cor, cordis, n. 
hearth, focus, i^ m. 
heat, calor, oris, m. ; sestus, us, m. 
heaven, c»lum, i, n. 
heavy, gravis, e. 
heel, calx, cis, f . ^ 
heifer, juvencus, i> m. 
heir, heres, edis, e. 



help, auxilium, i, n. 

^elp, to, juvo, juvi, jatum, 1 ; sub- 

venio^ veni, ventam, 4 (c. dat.). 
henoe, hinc 

)xerb, herbage, herba, se^ f . 
here, bic. 

hesitate, dubito^ 1 ; cunctor, 1. 
hesitation, hsBsitatio^ onis, f . 
hide, condo, didi, ditam, 3 ; occnlo, 

coloi, cultnm, 3. 
hidinsr-plaoe, latebni« sb^ f . 
hiffh, altus, a, um. 
\i\\\y colUs, is, m. ; divus, i, m. 
hilly, acclivis, e. 
himself, se (ace), 
hinder, probibeo, ni, itam, 2; im- 

pedio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
historian, historicus, i, m. 
hither, hue; hither and thither, 

bac . . . illuc. 
hitherto, bactenns. 
hoard. See beap. 
hold, teneo, ai, 2 ; babeo, ui, iturn^ 

2 (in every sense). 
holidays, feriss, arum, f . 
hollo'w, cavns, a, um. 
hoUow-out, to, cave, 1. 
holy, sacer, era, crum; sanctus, a, ' 

home, domus, i or us, f . ; at home, 

honest, probus, a, um; Justus, a, 
. um. 

honesty, probitas, atis, f . 
heney, mel, mellis, n. 
honour, honor, oris, m.; laus, dis, 

f. ; word of honour, fides, ei, f. 
hope, spes, ei, f . 
hope, to, spero, 1. 
horde, turba, », f. 
horn, comu, us, n. 
horrid, borridus, a, um. 
horse, equus, i, m. 
hospitality, bospitalitas, atis, f.; 

bospitium, i, n. 
hostile, inf ensus, a, um ; inimicus, 

a, um. 
hour, bora, m, f . 
house, domus, us, f . ; eenate-hotue, 

curia, sb, f . 
household, f amilia, e, f • 
household-stuff, 8upellex,lecti]is,f . 

hover, circumyolito, 1. 

how, quam; quomodo; how great, 

quantus, a, um; how many, quot ; 

how often, quoties; how long, 

however, tamen. 
huckster, lixa, m, m. 
hugre, ingens, tis ; vastus, a, um. 
human, bumanus, a, um; human- 

being, bomo, ims, c. 
huma^ty, i. e. clemency, mansue- 

tudo, inis, f . 
humble, bumiBs, e. ^ 

humidity, bumiditas, ati% f . 
hungrer, fames, is, f. 
hunt, venor, 1. 
huntingr, huntinar - expedition, 

venatio, onis, f . 
hurdle, crates, is, f . 
hurl, jacio, jeci, jactum, 3. 
hurry, to, i.e. hasten, festiuo, 1; 

propeo, 1; c<WTy-o/f, rapio, rapni, 

raptum, 3. 
hurry. See baste, 
hurtful, noxius, a, um. 
husband, vir, viri, m. ; maritus, i, 

husbandman, agricola, sb, m. 
husbandry, agricultura, se, f . 


I, ^o, mei ; If or my part, equidem. 
idle, ignavus, a, um; segnis, e; 

useless, vanus, a, um. 
idler, ignavus, a, um. 
idleness, iguavia, se, f. ; segnities, 

ei, f. 
if, si. 
igmorant, ignarus, a, um ; neseias, 

a, um ; indoctus, a, um. 
igrnorant, to be, ignore, 1 ; neBci<H 

ii, 4. 
ill, malus, a, um; (subst.) malom, 

i, n. 
ill-timed, inopportunus, a, um. 
illumine, iUustro, 1. 
illustrious, darus, a, um j izuigius, 

e ; egregius, a, um. 
imaffe, imago, inis, f. 



imasine, cogito, 1. 
imitate, imitor, 1. 
iznmediately, statim ; extemplo. 
imxaortal, immortalis, e. 
izniaortality, immortalitas, atis, f. 
ixnpatient, impatiens, tis. 
impede, impedio, ivi or ii, itnm, 4. 
impel, impello, pnlsi, pulsum, 3; 

instigo, 1. 
imperial, imperatorius, a, um. 
impious, impius, a« nm ; improbas, 

a, um. 
implant, insero, sevi, utum, 3. 
implore, ore, 1. 
importaiit, magnns, a, nm. 
importune, feitigo, 1. 
impose, impono, posni, positnm, 3. 
impudent, impudens, tis. 
impulse, motus, us, m. 
impunity, with, impune. 
impute, imputo, 1. 
in, in (c. abl.). 
inability, imperitia, ab, f. 
inaction, inertia, sb, f. See idleness, 
incensed, iratus, a, um. 
incentive, irritamentum, i, n. 
incidence, occasio, onis, f. 
incite, stimulo, 1 ; moveo, movi, 

motum, 2. 
increase, to, (trans.) augeo, auxi. 

auctum, 2 ; (intrans.) cresco, ere- 

vi, cretum, 3. 
incredible, incredibilis, e. 
incur (expense), contraho, traxi, 

tractum, 3. 
indeed, qoidem (enclitic), 
individual, a private, privatus, i. 
indolence, socordia, », f. See icUe- 

indolent. See idle. 
industry, industria, sb, f. ; studinm, 

i, n. ; labor, oris, m. 
infiELmous, turpis, e ; ignominiosus, 

a, um. 
infantry, peditatns, us, m. 
infiatuation, amentia, se, f. 
infirm, infirmns, a, um. 
infirmity, infirmitas, atis, f. 
inflame, incendo, di, nsum, 3. 
influence, to, moveo, movi, motnm, 

inform, to, certioremfacere. 

informer, delator, oris, m. 
inflrlorious, inglorius, a, um. 
inhabit, habito, 1; iuoolo, oolni, 

cultum, 3. 
inhabitant, incola, as, c. 
injure, noceo, nocui, itnm, 2 (c. 

injured, Isbsus, a, um. 
inlaid, laqueatus, a, um. 
innocence, innocentia, e, f. 
inquire, qusero, sivi, sitnm, 3; rogo» 

inquiry, qusBstio, onis, f. 
insatiable, inexplebilis, e. 
inscribe, inscribo, psi, ptum, 3. 
insolence, insolentia, sb, f. 
insolent, insolens, tis. 
inspect, inspicio, spexi, spectum, 3. 
inspire, inspire, 1 ; stimulo, 1. 
instead of, pro (c. abl.). 
instinct, natura, sb, f . 
instruct, doceo, ui, doctnm, 2 ; 

erudio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
instrument, instrumentum, i, n. 
insult. See abuse, 
integrity, integritas, atis, f. 
intend, statuo, ui, utum, 3. 
intent, intentus, a, um. 
intention, consilium, i, n. 
intercept, intercludo, clusi, clusum, 

intercourse, conyersatio, onis, f. ; 

sermo, onis, m. 
interlaced, innexus, a, um« 
interpret, interpreter, 1. 
into, in (c. ace), 
introduce, induco, xi, ctum, 3. 
invade, invado, vasi, vasum, 3. 
invincible, invictus, a, um. 
invoke, invoco, 1. 
iron, ferrum, i, n. 
irritate, irrito, 1. 
island, insula, 8B, f. 
it. See be. 
ivory, ebur, oris, n. 
ivy, hedera, sb, f. 


javelin, jacnlum, i, n. 
Jest, jocus, i, m. 



Join, jimgo, nxi, netmn, 8. 
Journey, iter, itineris, n. 
Joy, gaudium, i, n. 
Jndflre, judex, icis, m. 
Judffe, to, arbitror, 1. 
jndflrment, judicium, i, n. 
Just, Justus, a, um ; sequus, a, um. 
JuBtioe, justitia, e, f. 


keep, teneo, ui, 2 ; servo, 1. 

kill, iuterficio, feci, fectum, 8. See 

kind, i. e. tort, genus, eris, n. 
kindle, accendo, di, nsum, 8. 
kindly, benevolus, a, um. 
kindliness, , kindness, bonitas^ 

atis, f . ; caritas, atis, f. ; a kind- 

nets, beneficium, i, n. ; gratia, sb, f. 
kindred, cognati, orum ; propinqui, 

king, rex, regis, m. 
kingdom., regnum, i, n. 
knave, nebulo, onis, m. 
knee, genu, us, n. 
knigrlit, eques, itis, m. 
know, scio, ivi, itum, 4; moTi, def. 
knowledgre, scientia, se, f. 


laborious, operoBus, a, um ; arduus» 

a, um.. 
labotir, labor, oris, m. 
labour, to, laboro, 1. 
lajBTgard, cunctator, oris, m«; igna- 

vus, a, um. 
lake, lacus, «s, f. 
lamb, agnus, i, m.. 
lame, daudus, a, um. 
lament, (trans.) lugeo, xi, ctum, 2; 

plango, xi, nctum, 3; (intrans^ 

doleo, ui, itum, 2. 
lamentation, mseror, oris, m. See 

land, terra, se, f. ; ager, gri, m. 
largre, m»$rnu.8, a, um ; grandis^ e. 
largess, Uu-gitio, onis, 1 

last, ultimus, a, um; extremu4» a, 

lasting, perennis, e. 
last, at, tandem; demum. 
late, serus, a, um ; recent, recens, 

tis ; noTUS, a, um. 
lately, nuper. 
latter, the former... the latter^ iUe 

... hie. 
laughing-stock, ludibrium, i, n. 
lavish, prodigU8> a> um. 
IsLW, lex^ legis, f. 
lawful, fas, indd. it is lawfui, 

lay, lay aside, pono, posui>podtam, 

lazy, soeors, cordis; ignayus,a,uiiL 

lead, duco> xi, ctum, 3. 

leader, dux> ucis, m. 

learn, disco, didici, 3. 

learned, doctus, a, um; eruditos, 

a, um. 
learning, doctrina, sb, f.; ^sci- 

pliua, IB, f. 
learner, discipulus, i, m. 
least, minimus, a, um. 
leave, permissio, onis, f. 
leave, to, relinquo, liquid lictum, 3. 
left, reliquus, a, um. 
left (hand), sinister, tra, trum. 
leg, crus> cruris,, n. 
legate, legatus, i, m. 
legion, legio, onis, f. 
legionary, legionarius, a, um. 
leisure, otium, i, n. 
lend, credo, didi, ditum, 3. 
length, at, tandem; demum. 
less, imnor, us; much less, (cooj.) 

lest, ne. 
letter, epistola, se, f. ; litters, arum, 

f. ; of the alphabet, littera, e, f. 
level, sBquus, a, nm. 
level, to, SBquo, 1. 
levy, conscribo, scripsi,. scnptum, 3. 
liberal, liberalis, e; liberiu art*, 

ingeiMUB artes, 
liberality, munificentia, a, f. 
liberate, libero, 1. 
liberty, libertas, atis, f. 
licentiousness, licentia, ae, f. 
lie, i. e. tell Ues, mentior, itus, 4. 



lie, jaceo, ui, itom> 2; recnmbo, 

cuDui, cabitnm, d. 
life, vita, tt, f. 

ligrht, lux, lucis, f. ; lumen, ink, n. 
liiTlit, i. e. not heaynf, levis, e. 
ligrhtneBS, levitas, atis, f. 
Uerlitziinff, fulgur, uris, n. v 
like, similis, e. 
liken, assimulo, 1. 
lixKLb, aitus, us, m. ; membrnm, i, n. 
limit, finis, is, m. ; limes, itis, m. 
line, of a poem, versus, us, m. ; 

Une-qf'batile, acies, ei, f. ; line-of' 

mareht agmen, inis, n. 
lineage, stirps, pis, f. 
lion, leo, onis, m. 
literature, Httersd, arum, f. 
little, parvus, a, urn ; (adv.) paullam. 
live, vivo, vixi, victum, 3. 
liveliliood, victus, us, m. 
load, a, onus, eris, n. 
load, to, onero, 1. 
locality, locus, i, m. (either sing. 

or plur.), nom. pi. loci or loca. 
lofty, alius, a, um. 
long, longuB, a, um; for a long 

time, diu ; how long, quamdiu. 
look, look at, aspicio, spexi, spec- 
turn, 8 ; intueor, itus> 2. 
look, aspectus, us, m. ; species, ei, f. 
lord, dominus, i, m. 
lose, perdo, didi, ditum, 3 ; amitto, 

misi^ missum, 3. 
loss, damnum, i, n. 
lot, sors, tis, f. 
love, to, amo, 1; diligo, lexi, leo* 

turn, 3. 
love, amor, oris, m. 
lover, amans, tis, c. 
low, lo'wly, humilis, e. 
lucky, felix, icis; faustus, a» um. 
lust, cnpido, inis, f, 
luxury, luxuria, se, f.; Iuxu8,us,m. 
lyre, lyra, sb, f. ; fides, um, f. ' 


mad, insanus, a, um ; araens, tis., to be, insanio, ivi or ii, 4. 
madness, infiania, sb^ f.; amentii 

SB, f . 

magistrate, magistmtvs, w, b. 
magnanimity, magnanimitas, atis, 

maid, virgo, inis, f . ; maid^serwani, 

ancilla, sb, f . 
majority, part major, 
make, to, facio, feci, factum, 3. 
make (of body), habitus, us, m. 
make over, transf ero, tuH, latuiB» 

man, homo, inis, c. ; vir, viri, m. 
manhood, viitus, utis, f. 
manifest, perspicuus, a, um. 
manly, virilis, e ; hrave, fortis, e. 
manner, mos, moris, m.; modus, i,m« 
mantelet, vinea, sb, f. 
many, multus, a, um. 
marble, marmor, oris, n. 
mskrck, a, iter, itineris, n. 
marok, to, proficiscor, fectus, 3. 

^00 go. 
mark, a, s^um, i^ n.; nota, sb, f. 
mark, noto, 1. 
marriage, matrimonium, i, n«; 

marriage-ceremowf, nuptisB, arum, 

niarry, as a man, duco, xi, ctum, 

3; a« a woman, nubo, nupsi, 

nuptum, 3 (c. dat.). 
marsh, palus, udis, f. 
martiskl, martius, a, um. 
marvellous, mirus, a, um. 
mass, moles, is, f . ; pondus, eris, n. 
master, dominus, i, m. ; of a school, 

magister, tri, m. 
matter, i. e. affair, res, rei, f. 
matters, it, refert. 
meanwhile, interea. 
measure, to, metior, mensus, 4. 
measure, i.e. Umii, modus, i, m. 

See plan, 
meat, caro, carnis, f. 
meditate, oogito, 1. 
meet, to, occurro, curri, cursum, 

3 (c. dat.). 
meet, aptus, a, um» 
memorable, memorandus, a, um; 

insignis, e. 
merchant, mercator, oris, m. 
mercy, dementia, sb, f. 
messenger, nundus, i, m. 
metal, metallum, i, n. 



mstliod, modus, i, m. 

middle, medius, a, am; in the 

midtt, in medio, 
mien, species, ei> f. ; vnltns, ns, m. 
mlerlit, vis, ace. vim, abl. vi, f. 
mierlity, potens, tis ; ing^ns, tis. 
mildness, lenitas, atis, f . 
mile, say a thousand paces, 
military, militaris, e; nUUtaty' 

SfiTvice, militia, 89, f. 
milk, lac, lactis, n. 
millstone, mola, se, f. 
mind, mens, tis, f. ; animus, i, m. 
mindful, memor, oris, 
mine, mens, a, nm. 
mingrle, misceo, ui, ztum, 2. 
miracolcus, mirificus, a, um. 
mirror, specalnm, i, n. 
miserly, a miser, avams, a, nm; 

parens, a, nm. 
miserable, miser, era, emm. See sad. 
miserably, misere. 
misery, dolor, oris, m. See grief, 
misfortune, malnm, i, n. ; calami- 

tas, atis, f . 
missile, missilis, e. 
mistress, hera, ee, f . 
mix, misceo, ni, xtnm, 2. 
mob, mnltitndo, inis, f. ; tnrba, sb, f. 
mock, ludo, Insi, snm, 3. 
mockery, ludibrium, i, n. 
moderation, moderatio, onis, f . 
modem, recens, tis. 
modesty, modestia, bb, f . 
moist, humidus, a, um. 
moisture, humor, oris, m. 
mole, talpa, se, c. 
money, sum of money, pecunia, 

ee, f . 
-month., mensis, is, m. 
monument, monumentnm, i, n. 
moon, luna, se, f. 
more, plus, indcl. in sing, except 

plnris, of more value, pi. plures, 

plura, &c. 
moreover, preeterea ; quin. 
momingr, mane, indcl. 
mortal, morfcalis, e. 
mother, mater, tris, f . 
motion, motus, ns, m. 
mound, in fortification, agger, eris, 


mountain, mons, tis, m. 
mountaineer, montanus, i, m, 
mourn, Ingeo, xi, ctum, 2. See 

moumftil, luctnosns, a, nm; mm- 

tns, a, nm. See sad. 
mourning, aemmna, sd, f.; luctus, 

ns, m. 
mouth, OS, oris, n. 
move,moveo,movi, motnm, 2 (trans.), 
muoh, mnltus, a, nm ; (adv.) mol- 

tnm ; much less (conj.), nedum. 
mud, limns, i, m. 
multitude, mnltitndo, inis, f . 
munifloenoe, mnnificentia, se, f. 
murder, csedes, is, f. 
murder, to, csedo, cecidi, csesom, 

3 ; interficio, feci, f ectum, 3 ; tru- 

cido, 1, 
murderer, interfector, oris, m. 
murmur, murmur, nris, n. 
murmur, i. e. to complain, qoeror, 

qnestus, 3. 
my, mens, a, nm. 


naked, nudus, a, nm. 
name, to, nomino, 1 ; voco, 1. 
name, a, nomen, inis, n. 
narrate, narro, 1; refero, retuli, 

relatum, referre. 
narro'w, angnstns, a, nm. 
nation, natio, onis, f . ; popnlns, i, m. 
national, patrins, a, um« 
native, natalis, e. 
nature, natnra, se, f. 
naval, navalis, e. 
naviflration, navigatio, onis, f . 
near, propinquns^ a, nm; (prep.) 

prope (c. ace), 
necessary, necessarins, a, um. 
necessity, necessitas, atis, f . 
need, opus, n. 

neglect, to, negligo, lexi, lectnm, 3. 
neighbouring, vidnus, a^ nm; 

finitimns, a, nm. 
neither, neuter, tra, trum; (coiy.) 

nee; neqne. 
nephew, nepos, otis, m. 
nest, nidnsi X >n. 



net, rete, is, n. 
never, nunquam. 
nevertheless, tamen. 
new, novus, a, um. 
news, quid novL 
next, prozimus, a» ttm. 
nigrerardly, parens, a, um. 
niffht, nox, noctis, f . 
nifflitinsrale, philomela, e, f . 
nitre, nitrum, i, n. 
nobility, nobilitas, atis, f . 
noble, nobilis, e. See iUastrions. 
noble, a, nobilis, is, m. ; priooeps, 

cipis, m. 
noise, sonns, i, m. ; clamor^ oris, m. 
noise abroad, to, Tulgo, 1. 
nominate, designo, 1 ; nomino, 1. 
none, nnllus, a, am ; no one, nemo, 

ace. neminem. 
not, non; not even, ne 

noted, notns, a, nm. 
nothing:, nihil or nil, indcL 
notorious, notns, a, am. 
notwithstandixLB, tamen; nihilo- 

novelty, novitas, atis, f. 
now, nnnc; jam. 
nnmber, nnmems, i, m. 
nnrse, to, foveo, fori, fotom, 2. 


oak, qnercos, as, f. 

oath, sacramentam, i, n. 

obedience, obseqniam, i, n. 

obese, obesos, a, am. 

obey, pareo, ni, itam, 2 (c. dat.); 

obedio, ii or ivi, itam, 4 (c. dat.). 
oblonsr, oblongos, a, am. 
obscurely, obscare* 
observe, obsenro, 1. 
obsolete, to be, obaolefoo, levi, 

letom, 8. 
obstinflboy, pertinacia, s, f « 
obstinate, pertinaz, acis. 
obstruct, impedio, iW or ii, itam, 4. 
obtain, aoqairo, qaisivi, sitam, 3; 

potior, itos, 4 (c. abL); h^ en- 

treaty, impetro, 1. 
occasion, oocasio, onia, £• 

occupy, oocnpo, 1. 

ocean, ooeanns, i, m. 

odour, odor, oris, m. 

ofDBnd, offendo, di, snm, 3. 

offer, offero, obtnli, oblatum, offerre ; 

do,idedi, datum, 1. 
offering, donum, i, n. 
often, saepe; how often, qnoties. 
old, senex, senis ; yetus, ens. 
old age, senectoB, utis, f . 
omen, omen, inis, n.; iU^mened, 

ominoens, a^ am. 
omit, omitto, misi, missum, 3. 
on, i. e. upon, in (c. abl.) ; eoneem- 

ing, de (c. abl.). 
once, semel ; formerly, olim ; quon- 
dam ; at once, nmul. 
one, unus, a, um. 
only, solus, a, um ; (adv.) solum, 
onset, impetus, us, m. 
open, to, aperio, ni, pertum, 4; 

to he open, pateo, ni, 2. 
open, apertus, a, um. 
opinion, sententia, se, f . ; arbitrium, 

i, n. 
opportunity, oocasio, onis, f.; 

opportunitas, atis, f . 
oppose, obsisto, stiti, stitum, 3 (c. 

dat.). See resist, 
oppress, premo, pressi, pressum, 3. 
opulent, opuluntus, a, um ; locnples, 

or, ant; vel; ye(enclitie); whether . . . 

or, rive ... rive, 
orator, orator, oris, m. 
oratory, doquentia, sb, f . 
order, to, jnbeo, jussi, jossum, 2-, 

impero, 1 (c dat.). 
order, an, mandatnm, i, n. 
orderly, quietus, a, um. 
ostentation, ostentatio, onis, f . 
other, alius, a, ud. 
ous'ht, debeo, ui, itom, 2. 
our, noster, tra, torum. 
out of^ e or ex, (c. abl.). 
outrage, injuria, e, f . 
outstrip, pnevenio, veni, ventnm, 4. 
out-work, propugnaculum, i, n. 
over, super (c. abl.); across, trans 

(c. aoc.). 
overcome, supcro, 1; vinco, vici, 

victum, 3. 



overflow, inundo, 1 (trans.), 
overlook, prospicio, spexi, sprctum, 

3 ; neglect, negUgo^ lexi, lectum, 3. 
overtlhrow. See overcome, 
overturn, subverto, verti« versum^ 

owe, debeo, ui, itam^ 2. 
ox, bos, bovis, m. 


pace, a, passus, us, m. 

pacify, paco, 1. 

paint, pingo, nxi, pictnm, 3, 

painter, pictor, oris, m. 

paintingr, pictura, sb, f. 

palace, palatium, i, n. 

pampUet, libellus, i, m. 

panic, paver, oris, m. See fear. 

pant, anhclo, 1. 

parched, aridus, a, um ; exustus, a, 

pardon, to, ignosco, novi, notum, 

3 ( c. dat. of person). 
pardon, venia, sb, f. 
parent, parens, tis, c. 
parole, fides, ei, f. 
paJTicide, parricida, as, m. 
part, pars, tis, f. 

party, pars, tis, f . (generally in pi.) 
pass, prsetereo, ivi or ii, itum, 4; a 

law, fero, tuli, latum, ferr'e. 
pass (under the yoke), mitto, 

misi, missum, 3 (trans.). 
past, the, prseteritum, i, n. 
pasture, pastus, us, n^. 
patron, patronus, i, m. 
pay, to, solve, vi, solutum, 3 ; pen- 
site, 1. 
peace, pax, pacis, f. 
peculiarity, preprium, i, n. 
peevishness, petulantia, se, f. 
penalty, poena, sb, f. 
penetrate, penetro, 1. 
penitence, poenitentia, se, f. 
penny, denarius, i, m. 
people, a, populus, i, m. 
perceive, percipie, cepi, ceptum, 3; 

cerno, crevi, cretum, 3. 
perform, perficie, feci, fectum, 3; 

funger, functus, 3 (c. abl.). 

peril, periculum, i, n. 
perish, peree, ivi er ii, 4. 
permission, permissio, onis, f. ; U- 

centia, se, f. 
permit, sine, sivi, situm, 3. 
perseverance, perseverantia, se> f. 
persevere, persevere, 1. 
persistently, assidue. 
person, heme, inis, c. ; appearance, 

species, ei, f. 
persuade, persuadee, suasi, saasam, 

2 (c. dat. ef person). 
pervade, pervade, vasi, vasum, 3. 
petulance, petulantia, se, f. 
philosopher, philosepbus, i, m. 
philosophy, philesophia, se, f. 
picture, tabula, se, f. 
pile, i. e. building, moles, is, f. 
pilot, rector, oris, m. 
pious, pius, a, um. 
pirate, prsede, enis, m. 
pitch (a oajup), pone, poeui, poei- 

tum, 3. 
pitiful, misericers, cordis, 
pity, misericerdia, sa, f. 
pity, to, misereer, seritus or sertm, 

2 (c. gen.), 
place, locus, i, m., pi. loci er loca. 
place, to, pone, pesui, pesitnm, 3. 
plain, campus, i, m. 
plan, consilium, i, n. ; ratio, onis, 

plant, planta, se, f. 
plant, to. See place. 
play, to, lude, si, sum, 3. 
play, ludus, i, m. ; a play, fabola, 

SB, f. 

pleasant, gratus, a, um ; jucundus, 

a, um. 
please, placee, ui, itum, 2 (c. dat ). 
pleasure, voluptas, atis, f. 
plot, consilium, i, n. ; coi^uratio, 

onis, f. 
plougrh, to, are, 1. 
ploughshare, vomer, eris, m. 
plunder, prseda, se, f. 
plunder, to, rapie, ui, ptum, 3; 

prsedor, 1. 
plunderer, raptor, oris, m.; prie- 

dator, oris, m. 
poet, poeta, se, m. 
point, to, acuo, ui, utum, 3. 



point-out, ostendo, di, nsum^ 3; 

monstro, 1. 
poison, venenum, i^ n. 
pomp, pompa, ac, f. 
poor, pauper, eris. 
poptUaoe, vnlguB, i» n. rarely m. 
populous, irequens, tis. 
porch, porticos^ us> f. 
port, portus, us, in. 
portion, pars, tis^ f. 
position. See place. 
possess, habeo, ui, itum, 2; pos- 

sideo, sedi, sessum, 2. 
possession, possessio, onis, f. 
possession, to take, occupo, 1. 
posterity, posteritas, atis, f. 
pound, libra, se, f. 
pour, fundo, fudi, fosum, 3. 
poverty, paupertas, atis, f. 
power, potestas, atis, f.; in the 

power off penes (c. ace), 
po'werful, potens, tis. 
practise, colo, ui, cultum, 3. 
preetor, prsetor, oris^ m. 
praise, laus, laudis, f. 
praise, to, laudo^ 1. 
pray, preco, 1 j ore, 1. 
prayers, preces, nm, f., abl. sing. 

precedent, exemplnm, i, n. 
precept, prseceptum, i, n. 
precious, pretiosus, a, um. 
prefer, rnalo^ ni, malle; antepono> 

posui, positum, 3. 
preferable, melior^ us. 
prepare, paro, 1. 
presence, in presence of, coram (c. 

present, to be, adsnm, fui, esse. 
present, a, donum, i, n. ; munns, 

eris, n. 
presently, mox. 
preserve, servo, 1 ; tueor, nitns, 

press (on an enemy), insto, stiti, 

stitum, \; to v/rge, urgeo, ursi, 

sum, 2. 
pressure, impulsns, us, m. 
pretend, simulo, 1. 
pretender, simulator^ oris, m. 
prevail, valeo, ui, 2; to prevail on, 

exoro, 1. 


prevent, prohibeo, ni, itum, 2; 

impedio, ivi or ii, itum^ 4, 
previously, ante, 
prey, prsBda, sb, f. 
price, pretinm, i, n. 
pride, superbia, ee, f. 
priest, sacerdos, otis^ m. 
prince, princeps, cipis^ m. 
prior, prior, us. 
prison, career, eris, m. 
prisoner (of war), captivus^ i, m. 
private, priYatus^ a, um. 
prize, prsemium, i, n. 
probity, probitas, atis, f. 
proceed, progredior, gressus, 3. 
proclaim, pronnntioj 1 ; edico, dixi^ 

dictum, 3. 
pro-consul, pro-consul, ulis, m. 
pro-consular, pro-consularis, e. 
procure, paro, 1. See gain. 
prodigral, profusus^ a, um; pro- 

digus, a, um. 
prodigy, prodiginm, i, n. 
produce, pano, peperi, partum, 3. 
productiveness, ubertas, atis, f. 
proflEine, profanns, a, um. 
proficiency, peritia, ee, f. 
profit, fructus, us, m. ; qusestus, 

profuse, profusus^ a^ um ; prodigus, 

a, um. 
prohibit, prohibeo, ui> itnm, 2; 

veto, ui, itum, 1. 
prolongr, produce, dnxi^ dnctum, 3. 
promise, to, polliceor, itus, 2. 
promise, i.e. expected excellence, 

spes, spei, f. 
promptitude, celeritas, atis, f. 
prone, pronus, a, um. 
property, res, ei, f. ; bona, orum, n. 
prophesy, prsBclico, dizi, dictum, 

prophetic, prsescius, a, um. 
propitiou , propitins, a, um. 
propopp propono, posui, positum, 

3 ; to propose a lato, rogo, 1. 
prosperity, res secundcs. 
prosperous, secundns, a, um ; felix, 

protect, protego, texi, tectum, 3; 

tueor, uitus, 2. 
protection, prsesidium, i^ n. 



protraot, traho, traxi, ctum, 8. 

Bee prolong, 
proud, superbus, a, um. 
prove, demonstro, 1. ^ 
provide, provideo, vidi, visum, 2. 
provided that, dumj modo (both 

c. subjunctive). 
province, provincia, 8B, f. 
provisions, annona, », f. j supplies 

for an army, commeatus, ns, m. 
provoke, pro voce, 1. 
prudence, consilium, i, n. 
prudent, prudens, tis. 
public, publicus, a, um. 
punish, punio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
punishment, pcsna, se, f.j suppli- 

cium, \, n. 
pure, purus, a, um. 
pursue, sequor, secutus, 3. 
pursuit, i. e. occupation, studium. 
put. i8«« place. PM<«pfct<A,tolero,l. 
pyre, rogus, i, m. 

quantity, copia, ae, f. 
Quarrel, to, contendo, di, nsum, 3. 
quarrel, contentio, onis, f. 
quarters, winter, hiberna, orum, 

queen, regina, se, f. 
•quickly, celeriter. 
quicknfiss, celeritas, atis, f. 
quiet, tranquillus, a, um ; quietus, 

a, um. 


race, i. e. family, genus, eris, n. 

ragre, furor, oris, m. ; ira, ee, f. 

rase, to, ssevio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 

raid, incursio, onis, f . 

rain, pluvia, se, f. 

raise, tollo, sustoli, sublatnm, 8; 

erigo, rexi, rectum, 3. 
rally, colligo, legi, lectnm, 3 (trans.), 
rampart, vallum, i, n. 
rank, ordo, inis, m. ; a high rank, 

dignitas, atis, f.; Une of hattU, 
acies, ei, f. 
rapacious, rapax, acis. 
rapid, rapidus, a, um ; celer, is, e. 
rapidity, celeritas, atis, f. 
rapine, rapina, se, f . 
rare, rarus, a, um. 
rascal, scelestus, a, um. 
rash, prseceps, cipitis. 
rashly, temere. 
rather, potius; wish rather, malo, 

ui, malle, 3. 
ravage, vasto, 1; rajuo, ui, ptum, 

ravagrer, raptor, oris, m.; vastator, 

oris, m. 
rave, furo, ui, 3. 

reach, i. e. arrive at, attingo, tigi, 
tactum, 3 ; a place, pervenio, 
veni, ventum, 4. 
read, lego, legi, lectum, 3. 
readily, libenter. • 
ready, promptus, a, um; paratns, 

a, um. 
real, verus, a, um. 
reality, in, re ; re ipsft. 
reap, meto, messni, messum, 3. 
reason, reasoningr, ratio, onis, f . ; 
cause, causa, ae, f. ; hy reason of 
ob (c. ace.) ; propter (c. ace.), 
recall, revoco, 1. 
receive, accipio, cepi, ceptnm, 3. 
recent, recens, tis ; novus, a, um. 
recently, nuper. 
receptacle, receptaculum, i, n. 
recite, narro, 1 ; recito, 1. 
reckon, numero, 1- 
recognize, cognosce, novi, nitam, 3. 
recognition, oognitio, onis, f . 
recollection, memoria, se, f.; re- 

cordatio, onis, f . 
record. See recollection, 
recover, recupero, 1. 
recount, narro, 1. 
refresh, recreo, 1. 
refdgre, ref ugium, i, n. 
refuse, recuse, 1. 
refute, refuto, 1. 
regard, aspicio, spexi, spectum, 3; 
estimate, sesiimo, 1; facio, feci, 
factum, 3. 
regardless, negligens, ntia. 



region, regio, onis, f. 

reerret, to, desidero, 1. 

refirret, desiderinmy i, n. , 

reism, to, regno, 1; rei^n over, 

imperOj 1 (c. dat.). 
reiflm, regnum, i, n. 
rein, habena, se, f . 
reinforceznent, sabsidium, i, n. 
reject, rejicio, jeci, jectiim> 3; re- 

pudio, 1. 
rejoioe, gaudeo, gavisns sum, 2. 
relate, ref erro, retuli, relattun, ferre; 

narro, 1. 
relative, propinqnns, i ; oognatus, i. 
reliance, fiducia, 8B, f. ; spes, ei, f. 
relieve, levo, 1. 
relierion, religio, onis, f. 
relierious, religiosns, a, nm; sano- 

tiis, a, nm. 
relyingr, fretns, a, um. 
remain, maneo, nsi, nsnm, 2. 
remarkable, insignis, e. 
remedy, remediam, i, n. 
remember, memini, def. 
remembrance, memoria, se, f. 
remove, amoveo, movi, motum, 2. 
renew, renovo, 1. 
renown, fama, 8B, f . 
renowned, clams, a, nm; incly- 

tns, a, nm. 
repair, reficio, feci, fectnm, 3; re- 

paro, 1. 
repel, pello, pepnli, pnlsnm, 3. 
repentance, pcenitentia, se, f. 
report, fama, se, f. ; mmor, oris, m. 
report, to, nnntio, 1; faro, tnli, 

latnm, ferre. 
represent, fingo, nxi, ctnm, 3. 
repress, reprimo, pressi, pressnm, 3. 
republic, respnblica, reipublicaB, f. 
repulse, pello, pepnli, pnlsnm, 3. 
reputation, fama, sb, f. 
resist, resisto, stiti, stitnm, 3 (c. 

resound, resono, 1. , 

resources, opes, nm, f. 
respect, observantia, ee, f. 
respectftilly, verecnnde. 
response, responsnm, i, n. 
rest, qnies, etis, f . ; otinm, i, n. 
rest, the, reliqnns, a, nm. 
rest, to, qniesco, qnievi, etnm, 3. 

restore, reddo, didi, ditnm, 3. 
restrain, oohibeo, ni, itnm, 2; 

coerceo, ni, citnm, 2. 
restraint, frennm, i, n., pi. freni 

or a. 
result, eventns, ns, m. 
retain, i. e. preserve, servo^ 1. 
retinue, comitatns, ns, m. 
retirement, otinm, i, n. 
retreat, to» cedo, cessi, cessnm, 3 ; 

recipio, cepi, ceptnm, 3. 
retreat, receptns, ns, m. 
return, to, i^eo, ivi or ii, itnm, 4; 

give back, reddo, didi, ditnm, 3. 
return, reditns, ns, m. ; gain, fruc- 

tns, ns, m. 
reveal, patefacio, feci, factum, 3. 
revel, commisatio, onis, f. 
revengre, to, nlciscor, nltns, 3. 
revenue, nltio, onis, f. 
revenue, vectigal, alis, n. 
revere, veneror, 1. 
reverence, veneratio, onis, f. 
reverent, reverens, ntis. 
reverse (a law), abrogo, 1. 
revolve, volvor, volntns, 3. 
reward, prseminm, i, n.; merces, 

edis, f. 
xich, dives, vitis ; opnlentns, a, nm. 
xiches, diviti», amm, f.; opes, nm, f. 
ride, eqnito, 1. 
rider, eqnes, itis, m. 
ridiculous, ridicnlns, a, nm. 
rigrht, i.e,just, rectns, a, nm; pro- 

bns, a, nm. , 

rigrht, jus, jnris, n. ; £i8, indcl. 
rigrht-hand, dexter, tra, tmm ; the 

right hand, dextera or dextra, sb, f. 
ripen, matnresco, mi, 3. 
rise, snrgo, snrrexi, rectnm,3; orior, 

ortns, 4} of the sun, orior; sun- 

rise, (soUs) ortns, ns, m. 
risk, pericnlnm, i, n. 
rite, ritns, ns, m. ; sacmm, i, n«; 

funeral rites, exsequiee, amm, f. 
rivalry, semnlatio, onis, f. 
river, flnvins, i, m. ; amnis, is, m. ; 

flnmen, inis, n. 
road, via, ee, f. ; iter, itineris, n. 
rob, rapio, ni, ptnm, 3 ; spolio^ 1. 
robber, latro, onis, m. 
rock, scopnlus, i, m. ; rupes, is, U 



roll, Yolvo, yi, volutum, 3 (trans.) ; 

(intrans.) volvor. 
roof, tectum, i, n. ; ceiUng, lacunar, 

aris, n. 
room, i.e. space, spatiam, i, n. ; 

locus, i, m. 
root, stirps, pis, f. ; radix, icis, f . 
rope, funis, is, m. 
rose, rosa, se, f. 
rougrb, asper, era, erum. 
round, rotundus, a, um ; teres, etis. 
round (prep.)} circum (c. ace.), 
rouse, excito, 1. 
rout, fugo, 1; fnndo, fudi, fusum, 

royal, regalis, e. 
rude, rudis, e; incultus, a, um. 
ruin, ruina, se, f . ; destruction, exi- 

tium, i, n. 
rule, rego, xi, ctum, 3; impero, 1 

(c. dat.). 
rumour, rumor, oris, m. ; f ama, ee, 

run, curro, cucurri, cursum, 3; 

run away, fugio, fugi, itum, 3; 

rush, ruo, ui, utum, 3; rush-forth, 

erumpo, rupi, ruptum, 3. 
ruthless, immitis, e. 


sacred, sacer, era, crum. 
sacrifice, to, sacrifico, 1. 
sad, tristis, e; meestus, a, um. 
safe, tutus, a, um ; incolumis, e. 
safety, salus, utis, f. 
saifiron (adj.), croceus, a, um. 
sagraoious, sagax, acis. 
sailor, nauta, se, m. 
sake, for the sake, causA. 
salary, salarium, i, n. 
salt, sal, salis, n. 
salutary, salutaris, e ; utilis, e. 
salutation, salutatio, onis, f. 
salute, saluto, 1. 
same, idem, eadem, idem, 
sand, arena, se, f. 
sandal, calceus, i, m. 
sate, satiate, expleo, plevi, pletum, 

satisfy, satisfaciOk feci, factum, 3 

(c. dat.). 
savage, ferus, a, um ; 8ffivus,a,uin. 
savaereness, savagrery, ssvitia, 

8D, f. 

save, servo, 1. 

say, dico, xi, ctum, 3 ; loquor, lo- 

cutus, 3. 
sayingr, dictum, i, n. 
scanty, exig^us, a, um ; tenuis, e. 
scarcely, vix. 
scarcity, inopia, ee, f. 
scare. See frighten. 
scatter, spargo, rsi, rsum, 3 ; fimdo, 

fudi, sum, 3. 
scljBnce, scientia, se, f. * 
scorch, aduro, ussi, ustum, 3. 
scorn, temno, mpsi, mptum, 3. 
scoundrel, scelestus, i, m.; nequam, 

scout, explorator, oris, m. 
sculpture, sculptura, se, f. 
sea, mare, is, n. ; pontus, i, m. 
search, explore, 1 ; search out, 

quaere, sivi, situm, 3; exquiro. 
season, tempus, oris, n.; tempestas, 

atis, f. 
seasonable, opportunns, a, um. 
seasonableness, opportunitas, atis, 

seat, sedes, is, f. 
secret, secretus, a, um; arcanus, a, 

secure, securus, a, um. See safe, 
security. See safety, 
sedition, seditio, onis, f. 
see, video, vidi, visum, 3; oemo, 

[crevi], cretum, 3 ; specto, 1. 
seed, semen, inis, n. 
seek, qusero, sivi, situm, 3; peto, 

ivi, itum, 3. 
seem, videor, visus, 2. 
seemly, decorus, a, um. 
seize, occupo, 1 ; rapio, ui, ptum, 3. 
seldom, raro. 
select, 1^0, legi, ctum, 3. 
self, ipse, a, um. 
sell, vendo, didi, ditum, 3. 
senate, senatus, us, m. 
senate-house, curia, se, f. 
senator, senator, oris, m. 
senatorial, senatorius, b, um. 



send, mitto, misi, missom, 3. 
sentinel, vigil> ills, m.; a guard 

oftoldierai vigilieBj aruna, f. 
separate, separo, 1; Bejungo, nzi, 

nctum^ 3. 
serious, gravis, e* 
serpent, serpens, ntis, c. 
servant, servus, i, m. ; famulus, i, 

m. ; maid'Servant, ancilla, ffi, f. 
serve, servio, ivi or ii, itum, 4 (c. 

service, servitium, i, n. ; obse- 

quium, i, ti. ; military service, 

militia, se, f . 
servile, servilis, e. 
servitude, servitium, i, n. 
sesterce, sestertius, i, m. ; a thou- 
sand sesterces, sestertium, i, n. 
set-out, proficiscor, fectus, 3. 
settle, i. e. arrange, compono, posni, 

positum ; decide, statuo, ui, utum, 

3; constituo. 
settle, i. e. alight; sedeo, sedi, 

sessum, 2. 
seven, septem, indcl. 
seventy, septuaginta, indcl. 
several, plures, um. 
severe, severus, a, um ; acer, cris, e. 
severity, severitas, atis, f. 
shade, shadow, umbra, se, f. 
shady, umbrosus, a, um. 
shame, pudor, oris, m. 
shameful, turpis, e; probosus, a, 

shameless, impudens, ntis. 
shamelessness, impudentia, se, f . 
shape, forma, sb, f. 
share, pars, tia, f. 
share, to, divide, visi, sum, 3. 
sharpen, acuo, ui, utum, 3. 
shatter, disjicio, \jeci, jectum, 3. 

See break. 
she. See he. 

shed, fundo, fudi, fusum, 3; efi^do. 
sheep, ovis, is, c. 
shepherd, pastor, oris, m. 
shield, scutum, i, n. ; parma, se, f. 
shield, to, tego, xi, ctum, 3 ; pro- 
tege. See de^nd. 
shine, luceo, xi, 2 ; niteo, ui, 2. 
ship, navis, is, f. 
shirk, detrecto, 1 ; vito, 1. 

shock, impetus, us, m. 

shore, ora, se, f. ; litus, oris, n. 

short, short-lived, brevis, e. 

shoulder, humerus, i, m. 

shout, clamor, oris, m. 

shout, to, clamo, 1. 

show, o8tendo,di, nsum, 3; monstro, 

1 ; prsBbeo, ui, itum, 2. 
show^, i. e. appearance, species, ei, f. 
sho'wer, imber, bris, m. 
shrine, adytum, i, n. ; delubrum, i, 

shrink-firom, detrecto 1. 
shrub, arbustum, i, n. 
shun, fiigio, fogi, itum, 3 ; vito, 1. 
shut, cldudo, si, sum, 3. 
sick, sickly, SBger, gra, gram ; in- 

firmus, a, um. 
side, on this, citra (c. ace); on 

all sides, undique. 
sigrht, conspectus, us, m. ; visus, us, 

sigm, signum, i, n. ; indicium, i, n. 
silence, silentium, i, n. 
silent, tacitus, a, um ; silens, ntis. 
silent, to be, taceo, ui, itum, 2; 

sileo, ui, 2. ^ ' 

silver, argentum, i, n. 
simple, simplex, icis. 
sin, to, pecco, 1. 
sin, a, peccatum, i, n. ; sceluf>, eris, 

since, quum; quoniam. 
since. See after. 
sincere, sincerus, a, um. 
singr, cano, cecini, cantum, 3; canto, 

singrle, unus, a, um. 
sinerular, singularis, e; egregius, 

a, um. 
sink, merge, rsi, rsum, 3 (trans.); 

(intrans.) merger, 
sink, a, sentina, ee, f. 
sister, soror, oris, f. 
sit, sedeo, di, ssum, 2. 
situated, situs, a, um. 
six, sex, indcl. 
size, magnitude, inis, f. 
skilful, peritus, a, um; doctus, a^ 

skill, peritia, se, f. 
sky, caelum, i, n. 



slander, maledictam, i, n. 
slaufirhter, cades, is, f. ; strages, 

is, f . 
slave, serviis, i, m. 
slavery, servitium, i, n. 
slay, occido, di, sum, 3 ; interficio, 

feci, fectum, 8. 
sleep, sleepiness, somnus, i, m. 
sleep, to, dormio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
slender, sligrht, tennis, e ; exiguus, 

a, urn ; graceful, gracilis, e. 
sloth, socordia, se, f. ; desidia, », f. 
slow, tardus, a, nm. 
slugrgrard, ignavus, a, um. 
small, parvus, a, um. See slender, 
smear, illino, lini and levi, litum, 3. 
smite, percutio, cussi, cussum, SL 
snake, anguis, is, c. 
snare, insidiae, arum, f. 
snatch, rapio, ui, ptum, 3. 
snow, nix, nivis, f . 
so, ita; sic. 

soil, solum, i, n. ; humus, i, f. 
soldier, miles, itis, m. 
solemn, solennis, e. 
some, quidam, qusedam, quoddam ; 

nonnuUus, a, um. 
sometimes, ihterdum; aliquando. 
son, filius, i, m. 

songr, carmen, inis, n.; cantus, us,m. 
soon, mox ; as soon as, simul ac ; 

ut primum. 
sooner, i. e. more quicJcly, citius; 

rather, potius. 
soothsayer, haruspex, icis, m. 
sorrow, dolor, oris, m. ; mseror, 

oris, m. ; luctus, us, m. 
sorrowful. See mournful ; sad. 
sort, genus, ens, n. 
soul, anima, sb, f. 
aoiind, sonus, i, m. See noise, 
sovereignty, imperium, i, n. 
sow, to, sero, sevi, satum, 3. 
space, spatium, i, n.; space he» 

tween, intervallum, i, n. 
spacious, spatiosus, a, um. 
spare, parco, peperci, parsum, 3 (c. 

sparingr, i. e. niggardly, parens, a* 

speak, loquor, locutus, 3 ; dicp,>xi, 

ctum, 3. 

spear, hasta, se, f. 

ipeotaole, spectaculum, i, n. 

speech, a, oratio, onis, f. 

speed, celeritas, atis, f. 

spend (time), ago, egi, actum, 3. 

spirit, spiritus, us, m.; oowra^e^ 

animus, i, m. 
splendid, splendidus, a, um. 
splendor, claritas, atis, f.; splendor, 

oris, m. 
spoil. See plunder. « 

spontaneously, ultro; sponte. 
sport, Indus, i, m. 
spot, i. e, place, locus, i, m. ; on the 

spot, illioo. 
springr, to, i. e. rise, orior, ortus, 4 ; 

be bom, nascor, natus, 3. 
sprinfiTj ver, veris, n. 
spy, explorator, oris, m. 
Squander, dissipo, 1. 
stand, sto, steti, statum, 1. 
standard, signum, i, n. 
star, sidus, eris, n. ; stella, se, f. 
state, the, respublica, reipublicsd, 

f. ; civitas, atis, f. 
state, i. e. condition, conditio, onis, f. 
station, to, loco, 1. 
statue, statua, sb, f. ; imago, inis, f. 
stature, statura, le, f . 
stay, maneo, nsi, nsum, 2 ; moror, 1. 
steal, faroT, 1 ; rapio, ui, ptum, 3. 
steel, ferrum, i, n. 
stem, severus, a, um ; torvus, a,uin. 
sternness, severitas, atis, f . 
steward, villicus, i, m. 
still, tranquillus, a, um. 
still, i. e. get, adhuc. 
stir, to, (trans.) moveo, movi, mo- 

tum, 2 ; commoveo. 
stir, a, motus, us, m. 
stone, lapis, idis, m. ; saxum, i, n. 
stop, sisto, stiti, stitum, 3; impe- 

dio, ivi or ii, itum, 4 (both trans.), 
store, thesaurus, i, m. ; copia, », f. 
storm, procella, se, f. ; tempestas, 

atis, f. 
story, fabula, se, f . 
straigrht, rectus, a, um. 
strange, insolitus) a, um ; minis, a, 

um. a 

stranger, hospes, itis, c. ; pere- 

grinus, i, m. 



strangrle) strangulo, 1. 
strategy^ consilium, i, n. 
stream, flumen, inis, n. 
strengi^, vires, ium, f . 
strenfirthen, finno, 1. 
strew, stemo, stravi, stratum, 3. 
strive, nitor, nisus or nixus, 3; 

contendo, di, nsum, 3 ; certo, 1. 
strongr, validus, a, um ; fortis, e. 
strufirerle, a, coutentio, onis, f. 
study, to. See learn ; strive. 
study, studium, i, n. 
stupid, stultus, a, um j stolidus, a, 

subdue, subjugrate, subigo, egi, 

actum, 3. See conquer, 
subject, i.e. matter, res, ei, f. ; as 

opposed to a prince, privatua, i, 

submerfirO) mergo, si, sum, 3. 
subtle, subtilis, e; callidus, a, 

succeed (to a person), succedo, 

ssi, ssum, 3. 
success, yictoria, 83, f. 
succour, auxilium, i, n. 
succour, to, succurro, i, 3 (c. dat.) ; 

subvenio, veni, ventum, 4 (c. dat.). 
succumb, Buccumbo, cubui, cubi- 

tum, 3. 
such, talis, e. 
sudden, repentinus, a, um; subitus, 

a, um. 
suddenly, subito; repente. 
suffer, patior, passus, 3. 
sufficient, satis, indcl.; idoneus, a, 

sufficiently, satis, 
sum (of money), peounia, se, f. 
summer, setas, atis, f. 
sun, sol, solis, m. 
sunrise, lux, lucis, f. ; solis ortus, 
stlnset, solis occasus, 
sup, eoeno, 1. 

superstition, superstitio, onis, f . 
supper, coena, se, f . 
suppliant, supplex, icis. 
supplies, commeatus, us, m. 
support, to, ustineo, ui, tentum, 2. 
suppose, puto, 1; suppose (impe- 
rative), fac. 
supremacy, dominatio, onis, f. 

supreme, supremus, a, um j supreme 

power, impenum, i, n. 
sure, certus, a, um. 
surpass, supero, 1 ; antecello, ui, 8 

(c. dat.). 
surpassing:, egregius, a, um. 
surrender, dedo, idi, itum, 3 (trans.). 
surround, circumdo, dedi, datum^ 

1 ; cingo, nxi, nctum, 3. 
survive, supersum, fui, esse. 
suspicion, suspicio, onis, f. 
swamp, palus, udis, f. 
swan, cygnus, i, m. 
swear, juro, 1. 
s'weet, dulcis, e; suayis, e. 
swim, no, 1 ; nato, 1. 
sword, gladius, i, m. 
sympathy, consensus, us, m. ; pity, 

misericordia, se, f. 
system, ratio, onis, f. 


table, mensa, se, f. 

tablet, tabula, se, f. 

tactics, military, ars milita/ris ; 
res militares. 

taint, to, inficio, feci, fectum, 3. 

take, capio, cepi, captum,3; aceipio ; 
to take hy storm, expugno, 1 \ to 
take up, suscipio; take in hand, 
suscipio; take place, see hap- 

take away, toUo, sustuli, sublatum, 
3 ; demo, mpsi, mptum, 3. 

talent, ingenium, i, n. 

talk, loquor, locutus, 3. * 

talkative, garrulus, a, um. 

tall, procerus, a, um. 

tamarisk, marica, se, f. 

tardy, serus, a, um ; tardus, a, um. 

tares, lolia, orum, n. 

tareret, pelta, se, f. 

tarry, moror, 1 ; cunctor, 1. 

tax, tributum, i, n. ; vectigal, alisj 

teach, doceo, ui, ctum, 2. 

teacher, doctor, oris, m. 

tear, lacryma, se, f. 

tear in pieces, to, dilanio, 1. 



tell, dioo, xi, ctam, 3; nantio, 1; 

narrate, memoro, 1. 
temerity, temeritas, atis« f. 
temper, animus, i, m. 
temi>erate, modicos, a, am ; mode- 

ratuB, a, am. 
tempest, tempeBtas^atisyf.; prooella, 

86, f . 

temple, templam, i, n. ; sedes, is, f. 

ter, decern, indcl. 

tent, tabemacolam, i, n. 

term, to, voco, 1. 

terrible, diros, a, am ; terribilis, e. 

terrify, terreo, ai, itam, 2. 

territory, fincB, ium, f . 

terror, terror, oris, m. 

than, qoam. 

that, ille, a, ad j u, ea, id ; iste, a, 

that (conj.), at (c. sabj.). 
theft, f artam, i, n. 
their, sans, a, am; eoram, earam, 

then, tanc ; deinde. 
thenoe, inde. 
there, illic ; ibi. 
therefore, igitor ; ergo, 
thick, crassus, a, am. 
thioket, dametam, i, n. 
thief, fhr, fiiris, c. 
thingr, res, ei, f. 
think, pato, 1 ; censeo, ai, 2 ; to me- 

ditate, cogito, 1. 
third, tertios, a, am. 
thirst, sitis, is, f . 
this, hie, hsBC, hoc. 
thither, iliac j eo. 
thou, tu, tui. 

thougrh, quamvis ; quanquam ; etsi. 
thoufirht, oogitatio, onis, f. 
thousand, mille, indcl. in sing., pi. 

millia, am. 
threaten, minor, 1 (c. dat. of 


threateniner, minaz, aciB. 
three, tres, ia. 
thrift, f ragalitas, atis, f. 
thrifty, parcas, a, am. 
throne, solium, i, n. 
throngr, turba, as, f. 
throw, jacio, jeci, jectum, 3 ; throw 
open, patef acio, feci, factum, 3. 

thunder, tonitrus, only in gen. 

and abl. sing., pi. tonitrus or ua. 

thunder, to, tono, ui, itum, 1. 
thus, dc; ita. 
thy, tuus, a, um. 
tide, SBstus, us, m. 
till, donee; dum. 
till, to, colo, ui, cultum, 8. 
time, tempus, oris, n. 
timely, opportunus, a, urn. 
timid, timidus, a, urn. 
to, ad (c. ace), 
to-day, hodie. 
together, simul; una. 
toil, labor, oris, m. 
token, indicium, i, n. 
tolerant, patiens, ntis. 
tolerate, patior, passus, 3; tolero, 

toll, vectigal, alis, n. 
tomb, tumulus, i, m. 
to-morrow, eras, 
tongrue, lingua, sb, f. 
too, too muoh, nimis ; nimium. 
tooth, dens, ntis, m. 
torch, fax, facis, f. ; tseda, sb, f. 
torpid, to be, torpeo, ui, 2. 
torturer, tortor, oris, m. 
touch, tango, tetigi, tactum, 3. 
towBids, versus (c. ace.); ad (cacc.). 
tower, turris, is, f. 
town, oppidum, i, n. ; urbs, bis, f. 
townsman, oppidanus, i, m. 
trace, vestigium, i, n. 
tract, tractus, us, m. 
traitor, proditor, oris, m. 
tranquil, tranquillus, a, um. 
tranquillity, tranqnillitas, atia, f. 
transact, ago, egi, actum, 3. 
transcribe, exscribo, psi, ptum, 3. 
transfer, transport, transfero, 

tuli, latum, ferre. 
treacherous, perfidus, a, um. 
treachery, perfidia, se, f . 
tread on, conculco, 1. 
treason, proditio, onis, f . 
treasure, gaza, ee, f . ; thesaurus, i, 

treasury, serarium, i, n. 
treat, i.e. negotiate, ago, egi, actum, 




treatise, liber^ bri, m. 
treaty, foedus, eris, n. 
tree, arbor, oris, f . 
tremble, tremo, ui, 3. 
tremblingr, trepidus, a, urn. 
tribe, tribus, us, f . 
tribunal, tribunal, alis, n. 
tribune, tribunus, i, m. 
tribtmeship, tribunatus, us, m. 
tribute, tributum, i, n. 
triTunph, triumphus, i, m. 
tritunph, to, triumpho, 1. 
troop (of cavalry), turma, 8b, f. ; 

troops, copise, arum, f. 
trophy, tropsBum, i, n. 
trouble, solicitude, inis, f . 
trouble, to, turbo, 1. 
troublesome, moIestus,'a^um. 
truce, inducise, arum, f . 
true, verus, a, um. 
truly, vere. 

trumpet, tuba, 8b, f . j lituus, i, m. 
trumpeter, tubicen, inis, m. 
trust, fides, ei, f. 
trust, credo, idi, itum, 3 (c. ace. or 

dat.) ; fido, di and fisus sum, 3 (c. 

dat. or abl.) j confide, 
truth, Veritas, atis, f. ; verum, i, n. 
try, experior, rtus, 4; endeavour, 

Conor, 1. 
tumult, tumultus, us, m. 
turn, verto, ti, sum, 3; twm out, 

evenio, veui, ntum, 4 ; turn over 

{in one* 8 mind), agito, 1. 
turn, in, invicem. 
twelve, duodecim, indcl. 
twice, bis. 
twigr, virga, ee, f. 
twist, torqueo, si, tum, 2. 
two, duo, SB, o. 
two-edfired, bipennis, e. 
tyrant, tyrannus, i, m. 


tinaccustomed, insolitus, a, um. 
unarmed, tnermis, e. 
unbroken, infractus, a, um. 
uncertain, incertus, a, um ; dubius, 
a, um. 

uncle, /aMer** Jro^Aer,, patruus, i, 

m. ; mother^s brother, avunculus, 

i. m. 
uncultured, incultus, a, um. 
undaunted, impavidus, a, um. 
under, sub (c. abl. or ace), 
underfiro. See endure, 
undermine, subruo, ui, utum, 3. 
understand, intelligo, lexi, lectum,3. 
undertake, suscipio, cepi, ceptum, 3. 
undertakingr, inceptum, i, n. 
undisciplined, rudis, e. 
undutiful, impius, a, um. 
unequal, impar, paris. 
unfEiir, iniquus, a, um. 
unfortunate, infelix, icis. 
unfriendly, iniraicus, a, um. 
ungrratefol, ingratuR, a, um. 
unhappy, infelix, icis. 
unharmed, unimpaired, integer, 

gra, grum. 
unity, Concordia, se, f. 
universal, universus, a, um. 
unjust, injustus, a, um. 
unkempt, incomptus, a, um. 
unknown, ignotus, a, um. 
unless, nisi, 
unlike, dissimilis, e. 
unlucky, infelix, icis. 
unmindful, immemor, oris; oblitus, 

a, um. 
unparalleled, egregius, a, um. 
unpunished, inultns, a, um. 
unseasonable, inopportunus, a, um. 
unsullied, intaminatus, a, um. 
untouched, intactus, a, um. 
unwillingr, invitus, a, um; to be 

unwilling, nolo, ui, nolle, 
unworthy, indignus, a, um. 
upbraid, exprobo, 1 (c. dat. of 

uphold, sustineo, ui, tentum, 2. 
uprigrhtness, probitas, atis, f. 
upstart, novus homo. 
use, ususf us, m. 
use, to, utor, usus, 3 (c. abl.). 
useful, utilis, e. 
useless, inutilis, e. 
usual, solitus, a, um; usitatus, a, 

usually, fere, 
utter, edo, didi, ditum, 3. 




vain, vanaB, a^ um ; icani?, e. 
vainly, frustra. 
valley, vallis, is, f. 
valour, virtus, utis, f. 
vanish, evanesco, vanui, 8. 
vanity, vanitas, atis« f. 
vanQuish, ymco« vici, victiim, 

variety, divenitas, atis, f. 
various, varying:, varius, a, um. 
vast, vastus, a, um ; ingens, ntis. 
venal, venalis, e. 
vend, vend6, didi, ditum, 8. 
venison, ferina, ae, f. (properly 

an adjective agreeing with caro 

venture, audeo, ausus sum, 2. 
versatile, varius, a, um. 
Very, (adj.) ipse, a, um; (adv.) 

vessel, vas, vasis, n.; shvp, navis, 

is, f. 
veteran, veteranus, i, m. 
vice, vitium, i, n. 
vicious, vitiosus, a, um ; pravus, a, 

vicissitudes, vices, ium, f. 
victor, victor, oris, m. 
victory, victoria, sb, f. 
vifiTour, vigor, oris, m. ; vires, 

ium, f . 
yillagre, pagus, i, m. 
villain, scelestus, i, m.; scelus, 

eris, n. 
vine, vitis, is, f. 
violate, violo, 1. 
violence, vis, ace. vim, abl. vi, 

virgin, virgo, inis, f. 
virtue, virtus, utis, f . 
virtuous, probus, a, nm ; bonus, a, 

vision, visus, us, m. ; dream, som- 

nium, i, n. 
. vividly, too, nimis. 
voice, vox, vocis, f. 
void, expers, tis; vacuus, a, um. 
vow, votum, i, n. 
vulture, vultus, uxib, m. 


wage war, gerere helium ; bello, 1. 

wailing, ploratus, us, m. 

wait, maneo, nsi, nsum, 2; wait 

for, expecto, 1. 
wake (trans.), excito, \; he awake, 

vigilo, 1. 
waking, wakefulness, vigilia, », f. 
walk, ambulo, 1. 
wall, murus, i, m. ; town walls, 

mcenia, ium, n. 
wander, erro, 1 ; vagor, 1. 
wane, intereo, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 
want, inopia, se, f. 
wanting, to be, desum, fui, esse, 
war, bellum, i, n. 
warfare, militia, sb, f. See war. 
warlike, bellicosus, a, um. 
warm, calidus, a, um. 
warmth, calor, oris, m. 
warn, moneo, ui, itum, 2. 
warrior, bellator, oris, m. 
wary, cautus, a, um. 
waste. See squander; lay waste, 

vasto, 1. 
watch, vigilia, se, f. 
watch, to, vigilo, 1. 
water, aqua, se, f. 
wave, unda, se, f . ; fluctus, us, m. 
wavering:, dubiu?, a, um. 
way, via, se, f. 
we, nos, nostri or um. 
weak, iniirmus, a, um. 
"wealth, divitiae, arum, f. 
wealthy, locuples, pletis. See rich, 
weapon, telum, i, n. ; weapons, 

arma, orum, n. 
wear away, contero,trivi, tritum, 3. 
"weary, f essus, a, um. 
-weep, fleo, vi, tum, 2. 
weigrht, pondus, eris, n. 
-weighty, gravis, e. 
well, a, puteus, i, m. 
well, bene; weU disposed, bonus, 

a, um. 
well, to be, valeo, ui, 2. 
-west, occidens, ntis, m. 
-wet, madidus, a, um. 
wet, get, madesco, dui, 8. 
when, quum; ubi ; (interrog.) 



'Whence, unde. 

'Where, qua; nbi; (intern^.) ubi. 
'Whether, sive; in oblique interro- 
gations, utrum ; an ; ne (enclitic). 
Whether of the two, uter^ tra, 

which, qui, quae, quod. 
'While, dum. 
"White, candidus, a, um; albus, a, 

who, qui, qu8B, quod; (interrog.) 

quis, Lq^is] quid. 
"Whole, totus, a, um. 
'why, cur. 
"Wicked, malus, a, um; improbus, 

a, um. 
'Wide, latuB, a, nm ; far and wide, 

late. . 
"Wife, uxor, oris, f . 
'Wild, ferus, a, um ; ssbvus, a, um. 
'wild-beast, fera, sb, f. 
-will, voluntas, atis, f. 
'willingrly, libenter. 
'Win over, concilio, 1. See to gain. 
"Wind, ventus, i, m. 
'Wine, vinum, i, n. 
'Winter, biems, emis, f . 
'Winter-quarters, hibema, orum, 

'Wisdom, sapientia, se, f. 
^Tise, sapiens, ntis. 
wish, volo, ui, velle, 3; wish rather, 

malo, ui, malle, 3. 
'wit, i. e. talent, ingenium, i, n. 
"with, cum (c. abl.). 
'Wither, marceo, ui, 2. 
'Within, intra (c. ace). 
"Without, extra (c. ace), 
"withstand, resisto, stiti, stitum, 8 

(c. dat.). 
"Witness, testis, is, c. 
woe, serumna, se, f. See grief. 
"Woe (interjection), V89, 
"Wolf, lupus, i, m. 
woman, mulier, ens, f. ; femina, se, 

"womanly, muliebris, e. 
wonder, "wonder at, miror, 1; 

"wonderful, mims, a, um. 
wont, to be, soleo, itus sum, 2. 
"WOO, ambio, ivi or ii, itum, 4. 

wood, sylva, ae, f. ; lucus, i, m. 
wood, i. e. timber, lignum, i, n. 
'Wooden, ligneus, a, um. 
word, verbum, i, n. 
word-of-honour, fides, ei, f. 
'work, opus, eris, n. ; labor, oris, m. 
work, to, laboro, 1. 
world, mundus, i, m. 
worn-out, confectus, a, um. 
worse, pejor, us. 
worship, colo, ui, cultum, 3 ; vene- 

ror, 1. 
worth, dignitas, atis, f. 
worth, to be, valeo, ui, 2. 
'Worthless, i. e. cheap, vilis, e. See 

worthy, dignus, a, um. 
worthy, to deem, dignor, 1. 
wound, vulnus, eris, n. 
wound, to, vulnero, 1, 
wrath, ira, ab, f. 

wreath, corona, sb, f.; sertum, i, n. 
'wretched, miser, era^ erum. 
write, scribo, psi, ptum, 3. 
"writer, scriptor, oris, m. 
"wrongr, a, injuria, se, f . 


year, annus, i, m.; every ^ear, quot- 

annis; a space of two if ears, bien- 

nium, i, n. 
yellow, flavus, a, um. 
yesterday, beri. 
yet, as yet, adhuc; nevertheless, 

yield, cedo, ssi, ssum, 3. 
yoke, jugum, i, n. 
you, voB, vestri or um. 
youngr, juvenis, e. 
youth, a, juvenis, is; adolescens, 

ntis, c. 
youth, juventus, utis, f. 


zeal, stu<Uum, i, n. 



iBacus, ^acoB, i, m. 
.ffibutius, iBbutiuB, i, m. 
iBqui, iBqui, orum, m^, 
.ffisculapius, JEsenlapiuSy i, m. 
Afirica, Africa, se,/. 
Afiramemnon, Agamemnon, onis^ m. 
Asrathocles, Agathocles, is, m. 
Afirave, Agave, es,/. 
Agresilaus, Agesilans, i, m. 
Agrricola, Agricola, se, i». 
Ajax, Ajax, acis, m. 
Albani, Albani, orum, i». 
Albinus, Albinas, i, m. 
Alexander, Alexander, dri, m, 
Alexandria, Alexandria, m,/, 
Allobrogres, Allobroges, urn, m, 
\narcharsis, Anarcharsis, is, m, 
Apelles, Apelles, is, m, 
Apollo, Apollo, inis, m. 
Appius, Appius, i, m. 
April, Aprilis (mensis), is, m, 
Archias, Archias, se, m, 
Ariovistns, Ariovistus, i, m, 
Aristotle, Aristoteles, i8,m. 
Arpiniun, Arpinum, i, ». 
Asia, Asia, 89,/. 
Athens, Athense, anim,y*. 
Athenian, Atheniensis, e. 
Augrust, Augustus (mensis), i, m, 
Aulus, Aulus, i, m, 
Aurelius, Aurelius, i, m. 


Bacchus, Bacchus, i, m. 
BsBbius, Bsebi^s, i, m. 
Baisd, Baise, arum,/. 
BasiUdes, BasiHdes, is, m. 

Bedriactuu, Bedriacum, i, n. 
Boadicea, Boadicea, se,/. 
Bomiloar, Bomilcar, aris, m. 
Bragr, Braga, se,/. 
Britain, Britannia, se,/. 
Britons, Britanni, onim, m.; Bri* 

tones, um, m. 
Brutus, Brutus, i, fit. 


Cadmus, Cadmus, i, m, 
Caesar, Caesar, aris, m. 
Caius, Caius, i, m, 
Cajeta, C%jeta, se,/. 
Caledonia, Caledonia, se,/. 
Caligula, Caligula, se, m. 
Campanian, Campanus, a, am. 
Capua, Capua, se,/. 
Carthaerinian, Carthaginiensis, e; 

Poenus, a, um. 
Carthage, Carthago, inis,/. 
Caspa, Caspa, se,/. 
Casticus, Casticus, i, m. 
Catiline, Catilina, se, m. 
Cato, Cato, onis, m. 
Catti, Catti, orum, m, 
Catulus, Catulus, i, m. 
Cerberus, Cerberus, i, m. 
Cerialis, Cerialis, is, m. 
Ceres, Ceres, Cereris,/ 
Cetheerus, Cethegus, i, m, 
Chalybes, Chalybes, um, m. 
Chremes, Chremes, etis, m. 
Christian, Christianus, a, um. 
Chr3rsis, Chrysis, idis,/. 
Cicero, Cicero, onis, m. 
Cirta, Cirta, se, /. 
Claudius, Claudius, i, m. 
Clodius, Clodius, i, m. 



Cnseus, Crseus, i, m. 
Coll^gra, Collega, se, m. 
Corinthus, Corinthus, i, m. 
Coriolauus/Coriolanus, i, m. 
Crassus, Crassus, i, m. 
Cremona, Cremona, sb,/*. 
Cuphites, Cuphites, is^jT. 
Curio, Curio, oiiis, m. 
Cyrenian, CyrensBus, a, um. 


Daznasippns, Damasippns, i, m. 
December, December (mensis), bris, 

Dem.8BxietTis, Demsenetus, i, m, 
Dem-ocritns, Democritus, i, m. 
DensxLS, Densus, i, m. 
Deuoalioxi, Deucalion, onis, m, 
Diodotus, Diodotus, i, m, 
Dionsrsius, Dionysiusj i, m. 
Dionysus, Dionysus, i, m. 
Dopiitian, Domitianus, i, m. 


Egrypt, ^gyptus, i,/. 
Egyptian, iEgyptius, a, am. 
Ennius, Ennius, i, m, 
Epaminondas, Epaminondas, se, m, 
Ephesus, Ephesus, i,/. 
Epictetus, Epictetus, i, «i. 
Epicurus, Epicurus, i, w. 
Epidaurus, Epidaurus, i, m, 
Etruria, Etrufia, ae,/. 


Fabius, Fabius, i, m, 
Fabricius, Fabricius, i, m. 
Frisii, Frisii, orum, m, 
Furius, Furius, i, m. 


Gabii, Gabii, orum, m» 
Gubizdus, GabiniuB, i, m^ 

Oalba, Galba, sb, i». 
Gurgrara, Gargara, orum, ». 
G-8Btuli, Gsetuli, orum, m. 
G-aul, the country y Gallia, »,/. 
Gaul, a native of the country, 

Gallus, i, m. 
German, Germanus, a, um. 
Germanicus, Germanicus, i, m. 
Germany, Germania, te,f. 
Glycerium, Glyccrium, i, ji. (used 

as the name of a woman). 
Gracchus, Gracchus, i, m, 
GratiuB, Gratius, i, m, 
Greece) Grsocia, SB,f. 
Greek, Greacus, a, um. 


Hannibal, Hannibal, alis, m. 
Hasdrubal, Hasdrubal, alls, m, 
Helusii, Helusii, orum, m. 
Helvetii, Helvetii, orum, m, 
Hercules, Hercules, is, m. 
Herdonius, Herdonius, i, m, 
Hiempsal, Hiempsal, alis, m. 
Horace, Horatius, i, m. 
Horatii, Horatii, orum, m. 
Hyppolytus, Hyppolytus, i, m, 
Hyrcania, Hyrcania, sd,f. 


Iberus, Iberus, i, tn, 
India, India, gs,f, 
Ireland, Hibemia, »,/. 
Istejj Ister, tri, m. 
Italy, Italia, ss,f. 


January, Januarius (mensis), ij m, 
Jerusalem, Hierosolyma, orum, n. 
Jew, Judseus, i, m, 
Jordan, Jordanns, i, m. 
Juffurtha, Jugurtha, 89, m. 
Julius, Julias, i, m. 



June, JuDiTis (mensis), i, m. 
Juno, Juno, onis,/. 
Jupiter, Japiter, Jovis, m. 


LsBlius, LsbIIus, i, m. 
lAtin, Latinus, a, nm. 
liibyes, Libyes, am, m, 
Livius, Livius^ i, m. 
Lucius, Lucius, i, m. 
LuculluB, LuculluB, i, m. 
Lycurerus, Lycurgus, i, m. 
Lyons, Lugdunum, i, it. 


Manlius, Manlius, i, m. 
Marcellus, Marcellus, i, m. 
March, Martius (mensis), i, m. 
Marcus, Marcas, i, m. 
Marius, Marius, i, m. 
Marseilles, Massilia, se,/. 
Masinissa, Masinissa, se, m. 
Mazimus, Maximus, i, m, 
Menelaus, Menelaus, i, m. 
Menippus, Menippus, i, m. 
Metellus, Metellus, i, m. 
Mettius, Mettius, i, m. 
Micipsa, Micipsa, se, m, 
Milesian, Milesius, a, um. 
Miletus, Miletul, i,/. 
Minos, Minos, ois, m. 
Mithridates, Mithridates, is, m. 
Moor, MauroSy i, m. 


Orgretorix, Orgetorix, igis, m. 
Ortona, Ortx)na, se,/. 
Osciani, Osciani, cram, m. 
Otho, Otbo, onis, m. 


^adus, Padus, i, m. 
Panaetius, Paneetius, i, m. 
Paulinus, Paulinus, i, m. 
Paulus, Paulus, i, m. 
Pentheus, Pentheus, i, m. 
Philip, Philippus, i, m. 
Philippi, Philippi, orum, «t. 
PhilaenuB, Philsenus, i, m. 
Phormio, Phormio, onis, m. 
Piso, Piso, onis, m. 
Plato, Plato, onis, m. 
Polyorates, Polycrates, is, m. 
Pompey, Pompeius, i, m. 
Pontus, Pontns, i, m, 
Posidonius, Posidonius, i, m. 
Prometheus, Prometheus, i, m. 
Publius, Publius, i, m. 
Puteoli, Puteoli, omm, m. 
Psrthagorean, Pythagoreus, a, um. 
Pythian, Pytbicus, a, um. 

QuintuB, QuintuB, i, m. 
Quirites, Quirites, um, m. 


Naples, Neapolis, isiy. 
Nero, Nero, onis, m. 
Nervii, Nervii, orum, m. 
Nestor, Nestor, oris, m. 
Nile, Nilus, i, m. 
Numa, Numa, se, m. 
Numidia, Numidia, sb,/. 
Numidian, a, Nomida, s, m. 


Reflriuxn Lepidum, Begium Lepi- 

dam» i, ft. 
Regulus, Regains, i, m. 
Bemus, Remus, i, m. 
Bhadamanthus, Rhadamanthos, i, 

&hlne, Rhenus, i, m. 
Bhone, Rhodanos, i, m. 
Borne, Roma, »,/. 



Bomulus, Romulas, i» m. 
Boscius, BoBcius, i, m. 
Bufas, Rofiis, i^ m. 


Sabine, Sabinns, a, nm. 
Sagiintines, Saguntini, oram, m. 
Saxxmites, Samnites, um, m. 
Saurea, Sanrea, ee, m. 
Sdpio, Scipio, onis, m, 
Scythian, a, Scytha, », m. 
Sexnpronia, Sempronia, »,/. 
Sempronius, Sempronins, i, m. 
Serapis, Serapis, is and icUs,/. 
Servii, Servii, omm, m. 
Servilius, Servilins, i, m, 
Seztius, Sextius, i, m. 
Sicca, Sicca, se,/. 
Sicily, Sicilia, ae,/. 
Sisenna, Sisenna, se, m. 
Socrates, Socrates, is,/. 
Spain, Hispania, se,/. 
Spurius, SpuriuB, i, m. 
Strato, Strato, onis, m. 
Snevi, Suevi, orumj m. 
Snlla, Sulla, ee, m. 
-Suthnl, Sathol, is, ft. 

Tiber, Tiber, eris, m. 
Tiberius, Tiberius, i, m. 
TicinuB, Ticinus, i, m, 
Tigrranes, Tigranes, is, m, 
Titus, Titus, i, m. 
TmolxLS, Tmolus, i, m. 
Trasymenus, Trasymenus, i, m. 
Trebia, Trebia, sb,/. 
Trojan, Trojanus, a, um. 
Troy, Troja, ae,/, ; Ilium, i, ». 


Uslpii, Usipii, omm, m. 


Vacca, Vacca, sb,/. 
Valens, Yalens, ntis, m, 
Vams, Varus, i, m, 
Verona, Verona, 8B,yi 
Vespasian, Vespasianus, i, m. 
Victoria, Victoria, ae,/. 
Vincns, Vincus, i, m. 
Virgril, Vir^iliuB, Virgilius, i. m. 
VitelUanist, Vitellianus, i, «i. 
Vitellltis, Vitellius, i, m. 


Tarentum, Tarentnm, i, ft. 
Tarqidn, Tarquinius, i, m. 
Terence, Terentius, i, m. 
Thala, Tbala, ee,/. 
Thales, Thala^, is and etis, m, 
Thebes, Thebsa, arum,/. 
Themistocles, Themistocles, is, m. 
Thetis, Thetis, idos or idis,/. 
Thule, Thule, es, f. ' 


Xerxes, Xerxes, is, m. 


Zama, Zama, se,/. 
Zeno, Zeno, onis, m.